Testing times: the resilience of Australian bands during the Great Depression

165x215mm
A large room of tables stocked with fruit and vegetables with a brass band in the centre of the crowd. (Courtesy of the State Library of Western Australia: 8292B/A/6851-1)

Introduction:

From conversations I have had with bandmasters in Australia it would appear that the bands generally have been very hard hit by the depression, but I have been struck by the fine spirit and courage shown generally by them in these passing troubles.  Undoubtedly brighter times are coming, and they will be rewarded for the admirable attitude they have taken right through.

(Adkins, 1934)

The years from 1900-1950 are filled with historical events that caused great upheavals in society across the globe. Australia was similarly affected, and nominally our bands as well.  It was not all doom and gloom for bands as this time period is one that I personally regard as a golden period.  However, when society experienced hardship, our bands did as well.  The Great Depression from 1929-1939 is just one of those events that was global, but it was felt right down to the tiniest country town.  As for our bands, numerous articles published in newspapers tell of struggle and hope.  The words from Capt. H. E. Adkins, quoted above, then conductor of the A.B.C. Military Band attest to this.

In a previous post the impact of the “Spanish” Influenza on our bands was examined.  Australian society could not have predicted that a decade later they would again be thrust into convulsions not because of a health crisis, but an economic crisis.  Australian bands that existed at the time relied heavily on local council support and the goodwill of subscriptions from the general public.  The money was necessary to keep them going and keep them supplied.  Yet, as can be seen, there were some bands that were formed during this time.  Music, it seems, was a way in which people could forget their struggles and enjoy some community.

This post will obviously highlight some of the struggles that were experienced by bands and band associations during this time; unfortunately, this is unavoidable.  It is also necessary to provide context.  This post will also highlight the resilience of our bands during this time.  Many survived in the most trying of circumstances.  They also kept up a regular pattern of concerts, parades, contests and other events and in one instance, they also gave their support to the desperate of society. 

The Great Depression is but one event in history, as is the Coronavirus pandemic of today that is again impacting our many bands.  Resilience is a common term that defines the bands of the time.

The Great Depression in Australia: a brief history:

The headlines on an article published in the Sydney Morning Herald on October 26th, 1929 did not mince words: “Wild Selling. New York Panic. Profits Wiped Out. £80,000,000 Slump.”  – the stock market in New York had crashed on October 24th and this sent the economy into a tailspin (“WILD SELLING,” 1929).  The crash on October 24th, 1929 has been well-documented and for much of the world, this had profound consequences.  However, there had been economic troubles in Australia leading up to this event during the 1920s and this led to a decade of financial hardship for all:

As for many other countries, the 1920s were a decade of mixed blessings for Australia.  State governments continued to borrow to finance important public works projects, but underlying problems remained.  Post-war inflation in 1919 and 1920 was followed by a recession.  Unemployment hovered at around 10 per cent during the 1920s.  Loan funds from London dried up after 1927, limiting debt-financed public works.

(Eklund, 2008)

The early years of the Great Depression were very hard in Australia with major unemployment, collapse of the wool and wheat prices, social unrest, displacement of people and governmental problems (Eklund, 2008; National Museum Australia, 2020).  Williamson (2009) tells us “it was the working classes and those who became unemployed who bore the greatest brunt of the Depression.” and that “Losing a job broke the work and leisure routines of an individual’s life, and the victim further lost the company of workmates.” (from Electronic Article).

From 1930 a form of welfare assistance was given to needy households and was either in the form of “sustenance”, “the dole” or “rations” which was “barely enough to survive” (Hutchens, 2020).  This later evolved into other forms of basic work on designated projects for governments and local councils.  In 1932, 60,000 Australians – men, women and children, were dependent on this scheme and unemployment hit a peak of 32% (National Museum Australia, 2020).  A small song sung by the unemployed and children basically summed up the situation that thousands found themselves in:

“We’re on the Susso now,
We can’t afford a cow.
We pay no rent,
We live in a tent.
We’re on the Susso now.”

(Hutchens, 2020; McAnulty, 2017; National Museum Australia, 2020)

The immediate effect of such large job losses and unemployment led to mainly men wandering the country in searching for work (Eklund, 2008).  As well as this, those that remained in work faced cuts to wages and underemployment, which added to the social problems.  Many who had lived reasonable well in the 1920s found themselves in employment situations that they had not previously encountered (Eklund, 2008). 

By the later parts of the 1930s, economic conditions gradually improved although unemployment was still a major problem (“Australia’s Rise From Depression,” 1936).  Recovery was slow, and then tempered by the advent of the Second World War – the next global period of strife.

Finances and Administration:

How did Australian bands weather this economic storm, and what do the available records tell us?  The Annual General Meetings of individual bands and associations provide snippets of information as to how they fared, and thankfully these meetings were detailed in local newspapers.  The Hills Central Brass Band from South Australia held an Annual General Meeting in March 1930, the early years of the Depression.  In their reports the band said they were faring well and had accrued a small credit.  A paragraph from the article that was published in the Mount Barker Courier and Onkaparinga and Gumeracha Advertiser newspaper provides an insight into their awareness of the economic situation.

The chairman, in moving the adoption of the report and balance sheet referred to the excellence of the report.  Mr. Duffield had made a very capable secretary, and took a keen interest in the band.  The report was the best they had had.  With regard to the financial position of the band the speaker though it was highly satisfactory, considering the present depression.

(“HILLS CENTRAL BRASS BAND.,” 1930)

The Devonport Brass Band from Tasmania took an insular view of the conditions when they held their meeting in March 1931 insofar as the rest of Australia was having problems, but their band was proceeding as best they could.  Their acknowledgement of the present conditions opened the report of the AGM as detailed in an article published by The Advocate newspaper.

The report of the year’s working of the Devonport Brass Band at the annual meeting this evening will reveal that there is little sign of the depression so far as the fortunes of this organisation are concerned.

(“DEVONPORT.,” 1931)
Peterborough Federal Band (date unknown) (source: The Internet Bandsman Everything Within)

Back to South Australia, at an Annual General Meeting of the Peterborough Federal Band held in July 1931, the financials were outlined, and credit was given to the secretary of the band for his sound management of the finances during the previous year.

The secretary’s annual report disclosed a very active and successful year, whilst the balance sheet showed the Band to be on a sound footing; two years ago the overdraft was in close proximity to £200, last year it had been reduced to £14/6/5, and this year closed with a credit balance of £15/0/3, the receipts being £116/19/1 and the expenditure £87/12/5; this in face of the terrible depression that has existed, is a wonderful achievement, and reflects great credit upon the secretary (Mr. W. H. Kaehne), whose sole aim has been a credit balance, and he is to be highly complimented on reaching his objective.

(“Peterborough Federal Band,” 1931)

In these early years of the depression it is obvious that bands were well aware of the prevailing economic conditions.  However, it was not just individual bands that were taking notice, the band associations were as well.  In May 1932 the Queensland Band Association held their Annual General Meeting and mention of the depression was made in the annual report.

Fees received for registration for the year totalled £119 18s 6d., as against £106 8s 6d. in the previous year. The 1933 contests would be held at Mackay.  Notwithstanding the prevailing depression the association had held its own financially and closed a successful year with a credit balance of £91 11s 4d. compared with £105 16s 1d. last year.

(“BAND ASSOCIATION,” 1932)

Unfortunately, some bands inevitably ran into trouble during this period and either went into recess or disbanded.  Finances were certainly a factor in this, but loss of members was another – which will be explored in the next section.  In 1932 the Yeppoon Brass Band, located in North Queensland, announced that it would go into recess due to lack of funds and members (“INTO RECESS,” 1932).  However, in a generous move, the band allowed remaining members to keep their instruments while in recess.  The Franklin Harbour Band from the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia lamented its struggles in an article published by the Eyre’s Peninsula Tribune newspaper in November 1936. 

… at present one of the depression periods is being experienced and unless a revival of interest by the young men of the town and district is evinced, there is a possibility of the band after 25 years of continuous existence, sinking into oblivion.

(“FRANKLIN HARBOUR BAND.,” 1936)
Franklin Harbour Brass Band (date unknown) (source: The Internet Bandsman Everything Within)

The Gawler Brass Band was another that faced growing troubles and in 1938 announced that it was disbanding due money being owed to the local council – they owed £100 for instruments – and lack of members as they had gone from 24 players to 12 (“Gawler Brass Band May Not Continue,” 1936).

The Mail, 18/07/1936, p, 2

This call for more support was a common one from bands and associations as their finances dwindled and membership became problematic. The then Secretary of the Tasmanian Band Association, a Mr W. H. Gray was one who called for more support in a long letter published in The Mercury newspaper in January 1932 (Gray, 1932).  The letter is interesting given that Mr Gray makes no mention of the Depression while calling for more support for the bands – the subject of the letter is mainly about bands playing in certain parks from which they gain revenue.  However, one cannot help but feel that the impact of the Depression was implied when Mr Gray writes in his letter,

The bands are prepared to carry on provided the necessary public support is forthcoming, but many of them are doomed to early extinction if that support is not more liberal from now on.  The Sunday evening concerts provide a most pleasant hour, and are a wonderful tonic and inspiration for the following week’s worries and cares.

(Gray, 1932)

Of course, there were always some who resented that brass bands were getting any form of support at all, which was perhaps understandable. One person from regional South Australia wrote a pointed letter to the Advertiser and Register newspaper complaining that the Government was not doing enough to help primary producers and instead found some money to fund an Institute in Waikerie and buy instruments for the Waikerie Brass Band (to the value of £350) (Rogers, 1931).

Waikerie Brass Band, 1930s (Courtesy of the State Library South Australia: B 34089)

There are still more stories to be found regarding the experiences of bands in the Great Depression and thankfully, some are brought to light through community newspapers.  For example, two stories about the Walcha Brass Band, published in the Walcha News newspaper (Walsh, 2019a, 2019b).  The Walcha Brass Band suffered through the 1930s due to the impacts of the Depression but recovered soon after the cessation of the Second World War and survived until 1969 when it disbanded  (Walsh, 2019b).

If this small sample of AGM’s are to go by it is evident that bands were fully aware of the impacts of the depression.  Which made them all the more pleased to find they were riding the economic impacts as best they could. 

Employ a Bandsman:

Every band wants to retain their members as best they can.  This was no different for the bands during the Depression years where, as it was mentioned, people had to leave their localities to find work elsewhere.  Again, the fact that bands were losing members due to Depression conditions, factors that were really beyond their control, sometimes had a detrimental effect on the bands.  One strategy that bands used was to try to find employment for bandsmen in their own localities and on occasion implored local businesses to help them.  This was not an easy thing for bands to ask.

Freeling Brass Band (date unknown) (source: The Internet Bandsman Everything Within)

In 1931 the loss of members from the Freeling Model Brass Band from South Australia was noted as a significant factor affecting the survival of the band.  We can see in an article published in The Bunyip newspaper just how dire the circumstance of the band was in 1931.

The secretary (Mr. E. L. Anders) read the report and balance sheet on the year’s work.  He stated that the Band were in a financial position, but were unfortunate in losing eight playing members during the year; some having left the district through unemployment.  […] He also stressed the point, that little or no interest was shown by the playing members and the support from the public was very scanty.  This let the band down badly, and if not more support was forthcoming, the band would have to go into recess for a short period. […] A lengthy discussion arose, and for a time it was hard to distinguish what was being said.  It was proposed that the band go into recess.  After order was restored, it was proposed and seconded that the band carry on. 

(“FREELING MODEL BRASS BAND.,” 1931)

The Muswellbrook Brass Band, located in the Newcastle area of New South Wales, recognized that they might lose two members due employment issues and they made a request to the general public in their March committee meeting.  This request was detailed in the local Muswellbrook Chronicle newspaper.

Employment Sought for Members.

Reference was made to the possibility of losing two valuable members of the Band owing to their inability to obtain employment in the town.  The hope was expressed that this matter would come under the notice of the general public, and that anyone in the position to offer employment would communicate with Mr. Wallace (hon. Secretary). 

(“MUSWELLBROOK BRASS BAND.,” 1935)

Similarly, in the same year, the Dandenong Brass Band from Victoria (as can be seen in the article below) also put out a plea to try to find employment for two of their members.

Dandenong Journal, 21/03/1935, p. 5

The Waratah Brass Band from Tasmania and the Port Adelaide Municipal Band were other bands that noted the loss of members due to employment issues (“WARATAH.,” 1935; “YOUR LOCAL BAND NEEDS SUPPORT!,” 1938).  It was a circumstance that many bands found themselves in during these years.

Port Adelaide Municipal Band (source: The Citizen, 30/11/1938, p. 7)

Finding themselves in a slightly different situation, in 1937 a brass band located in Canberra was “disbanded as a protest against the refusal of the Department of Interior to guarantee all members permanent employment.”  (“BAND IS NOT TO PLAY,” 1937).  They were to play at an Armistice Service at Parliament House which forced the Department of Interior to hire a Sydney based band (“BAND IS NOT TO PLAY,” 1937).  However, in trying to defend this decision, the Secretary of the Department, Mr. Carrodus did say…

…that at least half of the members of the band had been given departmental jobs, but because of the stringent observance of the Returned Soldiers’ Preference Act it would be impossible to absorb them all.”

(“BAND IS NOT TO PLAY,” 1937)

It is hard to read of these circumstances and not feel saddened about the state some of these bands.  They were trying to exist in a time of history where outside forces were affecting how they operated; membership and commitment being a major part of those factors. No doubt they were doing the best they could under the circumstances.

The bands played on:

Brass band marching on Anzac Day, Sydney, 1930 (Courtesy of the National Library of Australia: 14446)

Music has always been known as a great reliver to troubles and during this time our brass bands rose to the challenge, not only for the good of the band and band members but also for the general public and other causes.  In fact, some commentators suggested that there was no need for music making to stop.  In 1931 a Dr A. E. Floyd wrote in an article published in the Australasian newspaper,

The effect of the present financial stringency on every man’s music and musical progress need not be unmitigatedly bad; indeed it may be easily, with a little forethought, be decidedly good. 

(Floyd, 1931)

Admittedly, the context of Dr. Floyd’s article was more on making music in the home environment.  However, there is no doubt that his thoughts were cross-applicable to playing in ensembles outside of the home as well – his encouragement was for people to keep making music no matter the circumstances for health reasons.

For our bands it was a little more difficult as engagements slowed and money was scarce.  The bigger bands, often based in metropolitan centres were luckier than most as they could keep up with a regular pattern of performances, parades and competitions.  Indeed, the Victorian Bands’ League presented some very impressive massed band events during this time including one in 1937 that involved six hundred bandsmen! (“BIG BANDS DISPLAY,” 1937).  In Sydney, a grand competition was held in 1938 which drew together bands from across Australia (Bandsman’s year book, 1938).  While in the regional town of Wellington in New South Wales, their first competition in twenty five years was labelled a “Tremendous and Outstanding Success” by the Wellington Times newspaper (“WELLINGTON BAND CONTEST.,” 1932).

Music for a cause:

The brass bands also did their bit for charitable causes and lent their services to help the needy.  For the bands, this was not a new style of engagement as over time they were regularly engaged in helping raise money for charity – the Victorian Bands’ League massed bands event in 1937 raised money for charity.  However, during the Great Depression this was giving a new meaning and we find the bands involved in some distinct social causes as well.

We can see that bands were an uplifting presence.  In North Queensland the Mirani Brass Band helped to lift spirits during a harvest thanksgiving event and the band was noted for their playing – practices had lifted after harvest when more members were available (“DISTRICT NEWS.,” 1930).  While over in Western Australia, the Merredin Brass Band joined other local organisations in an engagement that raised money for the needy in the district (Branson, 1931).  The Matron of the Clare Hospital located in South Australia wrote an appreciative letter to the Blyth Agriculturist newspaper to thank the “generosity of the general public” and the Clare Brass Band was given a special mention for raising money for a new dressing table in the Isolation section (Pattullo, 1934).

The thanks went both ways.  In April 1930 a letter was published in the Burra Record newspaper co-written by the President, Bandmaster and Secretary of the Spalding Brass Band thanking a Mr. P. Clark of Burra for financing a trip and engaging them to play (Hewish et al., 1930).  No doubt the band was grateful for these kinds of opportunities.

Burra Record, 16/04/1930, p. 3

We can also see mentions of brass bands leading marches and demonstrations, which is perhaps understandable.  Many brass bands were supported by industry at this time and no doubt some of the workers were affected by the conditions around them.  Mention was made of a brass band leading an Anti-Eviction procession in Sydney in 1933 and in Newcastle, a brass band headed up 600 unemployed from the “West Wallsend District” who marched on the town hall in 1935 (“ANTI-EVICTION PROCESSION.,” 1933; “UNEMPLOYED,” 1935).

Sydney Morning Herald, 14/08/1933, p. 10

Resilience:

We have already seen that some of the effects of the Great Depression on brass bands led to them going into recess or suffering financial and membership difficulties.  We have also seen that bands kept up their activities as best they could.  They were resilient in the face of adversity.  And if it was one activity that brought people together, it was the brass band.  In this decade, some bands even started up again.

In the township of Leeton, located in the Riverina district of New South Wales, a long letter was published in the Murrumbidgee Irrigator newspaper written by a contributor with the colloquial name of “Has Been”.  In 1932 the Leeton Band resumed practicing and this writer waxed lyrical on how much this band would mean to the town.

Sir,- I notice by your advertising that the Leeton Band is commencing its practices again, which means that we are again to have the pleasure of hearing band music.  This, I am sure, will be very pleasing to quite a number of people in our town and district, for the band is a decided acquisition to any town, no matter how small.

(“Has Been”, 1932)

Of course, there was a trade-off to reforming the band and “Has Been” wrote an appeal to the townsfolk to look for employment opportunities for bandsmen.

Might I add another word to the employers of labour, whether it be shop, farms or factory, when in need of a man, give the band secretary a chance to supply you with a bandsman.  If there is not a man in town suitable for the job, ask the band secretary to see what he can do.  The band secretary, being a life man, would, no doubt insert an advert in the city papers, worded something like this: “Wanted – A mechanic (or whatever the position was that had to be filled), good man only; must be bandsman (cornet player preferred) – Apply Secty Leeton District Band.

(“Has Been”, 1932)

“Has Been” was probably working a bit ahead of himself but the initiative was warranted given the difficult times – and many other bands were trying the same initiative.

The Tully Brass Band from North Queensland was perhaps one of the luckier ensembles as six years prior to 1933, residents of the town subscribed to the band and £400 had been spent on instruments (“TO BE RE-FORMED,” 1933).  When the band was reformed in 1933 those instruments were still available, so the band was able to restart almost immediately.  We can see in the photo below what the band was like in the 1930s.  

Tully Brass Band marching. ca. 1930s (Courtesy of the State Library of Queensland: 33123)

To be resilient a band had to be able to handle the circumstances as best they could and gathering public and council support was a chief aim.  When these pieces fell into place, bands could survive reasonably comfortably despite the outside circumstances.  For bands to restart during this time was an additional challenge which some of them managed with success.

Conclusion:

Coming out of the 1920s where the world seemed to be recovering only to plunge into another crisis must have been a major shock.  For bands, this meant a greater focus on administration especially finances, engagements and membership.  Some aspects were simply out of their control such as the movement of members due to employment – as enjoyable as playing in a band might be, the outside need was to find a job.  It was admirable that many bands sought to find work for their members and themselves become a social service.

No doubt the work the bands were doing was appreciated by their communities either through live performance or over the wireless.  Music is uplifting.  Music could help people forget about their predicaments, if only for a short time.  The bands did their best.

References:

“Has Been”. (1932, 26 February). REFORMING THE BAND : (To the Editor). Murrumbidgee Irrigator (Leeton, NSW : 1915 – 1954), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155893074

Adkins, H. E. (1934, 10 January). Britain’s Big Brass Bands. Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 – 1954), 10. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1158876

ANTI-EVICTION PROCESSION. (1933, 14 August). Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), 10. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16998155

Australia’s Rise From Depression : Story Told By Figures. (1936, 15 February). Northern Producer and Morawa and District Advertiser (WA : 1930 – 1947), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article257624349

BAND ASSOCIATION : The Annual Report. (1932, 12 May). Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), 13. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article180704011

BAND IS NOT TO PLAY : Demand Permanent Jobs. (1937, 11 November). Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 – 1938), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article237760894

The Bandsman’s year book and official programme of the Australian Championship Band Contest. (1938). (Band Association of New South Wales, Ed.). Band Association of New South Wales.

BIG BANDS DISPLAY : 600 Players. (1937, 25 September). Sporting Globe (Melbourne, Vic. : 1922 – 1954), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article180841683

Branson, I. N. (1931, 28 April). The Meldrum Benefit. Wheatbelt Wheatsheaf and Dampier Advocate (Merredin, WA : 1930 – 1939), 1. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article251755519

DEVONPORT. (1931, 31 March). Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 – 1954), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article67710241

DISTRICT NEWS : Mirani : (From our Correspondent). (1930, 23 December). Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld. : 1906 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article170235248

Eklund, E. (2008). 10 June 1931. In M. Crotty & D. A. Roberts (Eds.), Turning Points in Australian History (pp. 48-61). University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Floyd, A. E. (1931, 03 January). MUSIC : Need the Depression Stifle Music? Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 – 1946), 15. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article141416272

FRANKLIN HARBOUR BAND. (1936, 26 November). Eyre’s Peninsula Tribune (Cowell, SA : 1910 – 1950), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219473615

Freeling Brass Band. (n.d.). The Internet Bandsman Everything Within, Vintage Brass Band Pictures : Australia. http://www.ibew.org.uk/vinbbp/phot15438.jpg

FREELING MODEL BRASS BAND. (1931, 19 June). Bunyip (Gawler, SA : 1863 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article96642544

Gawler Brass Band May Not Continue. (1936, 18 July). Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article55830899

Gray, W. H. (1932, 09 January). BAND CONCERTS : Appeals for More Liberal Support : To the Editor of “The Mercury.”. Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), 9. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article29939058

Hewish, P. A., Carlson, A. C., & Mannion, F. J. (1930, 16 April). SPALDING’S BRASS BAND APPRECIATION : (To the Editor). Burra Record (SA : 1878 – 1954), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37488195

HILLS CENTRAL BRASS BAND. (1930, 21 March). Mount Barker Courier and Onkaparinga and Gumeracha Advertiser (SA : 1880 – 1954), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article147845925

Hutchens, G. (2020, 29 March). The lessons of our past and our neighbours’ present could guide Australia’s economic response to coronavirus. ABC News. Retrieved 02 October 2020 from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-03-29/australias-history-of-economic-support-coronavirus-covid-19/12100194

Illustrations Ltd. (1932). Large group of people in shed near tables full of vegetables and fruit [picture] [1 negative : glass, b&w ; 17 x 22 cm. 101841PD]. State Library Western Australia, Illustrations Ltd collection ; 8292B/A/6851-1. https://encore.slwa.wa.gov.au/iii/encore/record/C__Rb2649568

INTO RECESS : Yeppoon Brass Band. (1932, 26 April). Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 – 1954), 1. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article54737835

ITEMS OF INTEREST : Dandenong Brass Band. (1935, 21 March). Dandenong Journal (Vic. : 1927 – 1954), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article213964037

McAnulty, H. (2017, 13 January). History Talking: Surviving life in the dole-drums of the Depression. Central Western Daily. https://www.centralwesterndaily.com.au/story/4403111/history-talking-surviving-life-in-the-dole-drums-of-the-depression/

MUSWELLBROOK BRASS BAND : Committee Meeting. (1935, 01 March). Muswellbrook Chronicle (NSW : 1898 – 1955), 1. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107669487

National Museum Australia. (2020, 15 April ). 1932: Height of the Great Depression, with 32 per cent unemployment. National Museum Australia. Retrieved 26 September 2020 from https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/great-depression

Pattullo, B. (1934, 12 January). THE CLARE AND DISTRICT HOSPITAL : | To the Editor |. Blyth Agriculturist (SA : 1908 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article217990434

Peterborough Federal Band. (n.d.). [Photograph]. The Internet Bandsman Everything Within, Vintage Brass Band Pictures : Australia. http://www.satiche.org.uk/vinbbp/phot6378.jpg

Peterborough Federal Band : Annual General Meeting. (1931, 17 July). Times and Northern Advertiser, Peterborough, South Australia (SA : 1919 – 1950), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article110542695

Pohjanpalo, J. (1930). Brass band marching on Anzac Day, Sydney, 1930 [1 negative : nitrate, black and white]. National Library of Australia, Trove : Jorma Pohjanpalo collection of photographs of Sydney and Queensland, 1928-1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-152628053

Rogers, G. S. (1931, 15 April). POINTS FROM LETTERS : Brass Bands or Primary Production. Advertiser and Register (Adelaide, SA : 1931), 12. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article45760607

TO BE RE-FORMED : Tully Brass Band. (1933, 13 May). Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article41214410

UNEMPLOYED : Meet Shire Council : MANY DEMANDS : 600 March from West Wallsend : Strikers State Their Case. (1935, 12 July). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), 11. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article138136031

Unidentified. (1933). Marching brass band, Tully, ca. 1930s [photographic print : black & white , ca. 1930s. Negative number: 33123]. Brisbane John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland, Flickriver. https://hdl.handle.net/10462/deriv/192004

Waikerie Brass Band. (1930). [Photograph]. State Library South Australia, Waikerie Collection. https://collections.slsa.sa.gov.au/resource/B+34089

Walsh, B. (2019a, 27 February). Walcha History: Band stands and delivers for Premier. Walcha News. https://www.walchanewsonline.com.au/story/5922107/walcha-band-stands-and-delivers-for-premier/

Walsh, B. (2019b, 13 March). Walcha History: Walcha Town Band’s final years. Walcha News. https://www.walchanewsonline.com.au/story/5947106/walcha-town-bands-final-hurrah/

WARATAH : The Band. (1935, 16 November). Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 – 1954), 10. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86569751

WELLINGTON BAND CONTEST : THE FIRST FOR 25 YEARS : A Tremendous and Outstanding Success. : UNBOUNDED ENTHUSIASM. (1932, 04 January). Wellington Times (NSW : 1899 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article143246369

WILD SELLING : New York Panic : PROFITS WIPED OUT : £80,000,000 Slump. (1929, 26 October). Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), 17. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16596498

Williamson, A. (2009). The Cud on History — Looking Back on The Great Depression in Australia [Electronic Magazine Article]. The Cud: Entertain a new perspective: chew the cud. Retrieved 26 September 2020, from http://thecud.com.au/live/content/cud-history-—-looking-back-great-depression-australia

YOUR LOCAL BAND NEEDS SUPPORT! : A Short History. (1938, 30 November). Citizen (Port Adelaide, SA : 1938-1940), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236745262

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s