Please note: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people should be aware that this blog post may contain images or descriptions of deceased persons in photographs and (digital) newspaper articles. In addition, this blog post may contain images or descriptions of deceased persons from former secure health facilities in photographs and (digital) newspaper articles.
When we look at the distribution of brass bands in Australia between 1900 – 1950 we can see that they mushroomed everywhere. Some towns and localities were lucky to have two or three. Bands merged, split, started, and ended, and we know that individual bandsmen were great traveler and had various loyalties. Given the size of Australia, it can be assumed that geography was an early challenge – it took a long time to get anywhere and obtain the fundamentals for running a band. Yet the early bands did it and several bands survived.
This post is about the brass bands that were located on some of the islands that surround Australia. In selecting the islands and bands, I took a punt with some and accidentally found some others. When looking for stories and histories I found that information on these island bands was a bit hit and miss. In some cases, there were only one or two newspaper articles (that I found) where there was only a mere mention of a band. Timelines were difficult to establish but we can get a rough guess based on early articles and later articles. However, the fact that these bands had an existence of sorts only adds to the rich history of bands in this country.
I started this post with a disclaimer. The reason for this is that two of the bands were located on islands where Aboriginal missions were established, and another band was located on a small island that once housed a facility for isolating people with leprosy. To delve deeper in the pasts of these missions and this facility uncovered some disturbing facts, as I tried to build a background as to why bands were established in these locations. All locations had unfortunate pasts which will have to be acknowledged in this post, but we recognize that at the time, bands were created with a similar purpose to those in other locations.
This post will address each location, or groups of locations in turn and we will see that the bands in these places were innovative, dedicated and proud. We will also see that they were engaged with island life and that being a band on an island had a special meaning. These bands may not have had the reputation or resources of bigger ensembles, but they did have a certain spirit given to them by their locations.
Kangaroo Island (South Australia):
Kangaroo Island, located off the coast of the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia is nominally Australia’s third largest island behind Tasmania and Melville Island (Sealink Travel Group, 2019). At 155km in length and up to 55km in wide it is big in area but contains only four main settlements, of which Kingscote is the main town (Sealink Travel Group, 2019). The Kangaroo Island Pioneers Association has documented history prior to 1836 however most of the recorded history occurs after this date (Kangaroo Island Pioneers Association, 2019).
We first see mention of a brass band on Kangaroo Island in an article published by The Register in 1906 which makes mention of a concert presented by the Kingscote Brass Band (“MUSIC FOR WATCHERS BY THE SEA.,” 1906). This concert was in aid of an instrument fund and was basically a social evening and dance. However, the article also makes mention of another performance held during a lunch hour where the band, with some innovation, broadcast their performance by telephone! As written in the article:
Last Tuesday, during the luncheon hour, through the courtesy of the P.M. here (Mr. Lamprey), the Kingscote Brass Band played selections through the telephone to Cape Willoughby and Cape Borda Lighthouses. The music was much appreciated by the watchers by the sea at either end of the island. Cape Borda is 70 miles westerly from Kingscote, and Cape Willoughby is about 30 miles easterly.(“MUSIC FOR WATCHERS BY THE SEA.,” 1906)
To think they did this in 1906 is quite remarkable and inventive.
The activities of the Kingscote Brass Band were mentioned in the local newspaper, The Kangaroo Island Courier in late 1907 where they were noted for wanting to present a program of Christmas Carols and marches on Christmas Eve (“Kingscote Brass Band Items.,” 1907). This is in addition to their fundraising effort for new instruments. In the middle of 1908, the said newspaper received a letter from a mainlander who had read an article in Australian Bandsman about the travel of Kingscote Brass Band members (“ENTHUSIASTIC INSTRUMENTALISTS.,” 1908). In his letter he says, “I think the 12-mile man is the bandmaster and he deserves a lot of encouragement for his trouble” and then proceeds to wax lyrically, “…although I don’t suppose he considers it a trouble, as all men who are interested in their particular band never find anything troublesome where the band is concerned.” (“ENTHUSIASTIC INSTRUMENTALISTS.,” 1908).
We have been told.
There is a further mention of the Kingscote Brass Band giving a performance in 1921 where they were noted for showing improvement in their playing (“THE KINGSCOTE BAND.,” 1921). The article mentions that they had been tutored by their former conductor who was visiting the island after a 10-year absence (“THE KINGSCOTE BAND.,” 1921). Unfortunately, due to limited resources, it is unclear how much longer this band survived. However, it is clear from this brief amount of information that they were appreciated when they performed.
King Island (Tasmania):
King Island is located in the middle of Bass Strait off the northern coast of Tasmania. It is renowned for its produce although it has never had a big population, there are some well-known localities on the island. It is also known for the ruggedness of its coastline and there are many instances of shipping coming to grief on the rocks. The main center of population is the town of Currie where they still have a community band.
In terms of early brass bands, King Island is unique as there are two brass bands mentioned as having existed in the early 1900s. Information on this band also comes from an island newspaper, the King Island News and we first see a mention people wanting for form a band in Currie in 1914 (“King Island.”, 1914). Although two years later the Currie Brass Band has still not been founded and the money that was initially raised has been donated to wounded King Island soldiers returning from World War 1 (“No title,” 1916).
In 1918 the King Island News reported on the formation of another brass band, this time in the mining settlement of Grassy which is located on the eastern side of the Island (“KING ISLAND.,” 1918). Initially called the Grassy Brass Band, this band was actually set up by the mining company for the recreation of employees at the mine and was known as the King Island Tungsten Brass Band (“KING ISLAND.,” 1918). This band was called for all over the island and in 1919 was noted for its performances of Christmas music in Currie (“No title,” 1919).
Again, this is another instance where some history is incomplete as we don’t know for certain when this band stopped operations. While the articles are not listed, the King Island Tungsten Brass Band did numerous engagements on the island and were a valued part of the island community.
Phillip Island (Victoria):
Phillip Island is an island that occupies the southern portion of Westernport Bay in Victoria and is well-connected to the rest of the state by road and ferry. People might know it because of certain penguins however it has had a long history of settlement and there are several towns on the island with the main town being Cowes.
It should be no surprise that a brass band formed on Phillip Island in the township of Cowes. The Phillip Island Brass Band was much more proactive than any other brass bands on Australian islands and were much more well-traveled. They were even proactive enough to enter the South Street band contests on two occasions and took themselves on an educational trip around Tasmania (Royal South Street Society, 1932, 1934; “Visiting Band,” 1947).
A proposal to form the Phillip Island Brass Band is mentioned in an informative article from the Frankston and Somerville Standard on the 30thMay, 1923 (“PHILLIP ISLAND BRASS BAND.,” 1923). They had all the right intentions too, as the article opens with these platitudes:
An effort is being made to form a brass band on Phillip Island. The advantages of such an institution are many. Anything that will encourage the practice of music, especially concerted music, is worthy of hearty support, and the metal and moral benefit derived by any young man who gives his mind and time to learning an instrument is great.(“PHILLIP ISLAND BRASS BAND.,” 1923)
The article goes on to note that the promoters of the band were under no illusions as to what they might need in terms of men willing to join the band, instruments, a hall to play in, and a whole host of other items. The Island Progress Association, as well as the local council, were behind the project and a band was formed.
As mentioned, the band was quite proactive in the way they did things, even bordering on the unusual. For example, to help raise funds for a trip to the South Street contests in 1934, a picture of a bandsman helping with the chicory harvest was published in the Herald newspaper (above) – this was apparently a common activity at the time (“COWES BANDMEN HANDLE CHICORY CROP,” 1934). They did make it to South Street, twice, once in 1932 where they competed in C and D grades and also in 1934 where they only competed in D grade. The results of their endeavors are listed in the table below:
|1932||Victorian Band Championships||C||No. 1 Test Piece||124|
|No. 2 Test Piece||120|
|D||No. 1 Test PIece||120||3rd|
|No. 2 Test PIece||119||3rd|
|1934||Victorian Band Championships||D||Selection||277||Equal 3rd|
Aside from this, they were well-known and in 1935 they were one of the bands to form a Gippsland Branch of the Victorian Bands’ League with other bands from Warragul, Wonthaggi, Korumburra, Leongatha and Dandenong (“Victorian Bands League.,” 1935).
There seems to have been some disquiet after the band returned from Tasmania in 1947. In January 1953 the State Governor visited Phillip Island and the visit was written up in an article in The Argus newspaper. As the article says:
Yesterday was an exciting day for Cowes, Phillip Island. Sir Dallas Brooks, Governor, paid his first official visit to the island and almost everybody, including the town’s brass band, turned out for the occasion.
Until last week the band had been “in recess for four years,” as one member tactfully put it. But it acquitted itself well.(“Cowes turned out to meet the Governor,” 1953)
The cause and conclusion of this four-year recess might require further research.
The Trove archive has some limitations as articles fall into copyright from 1955 so we don’t exactly know when the Phillip Island Brass band went defunct. But they are one of the well-documented bands with further information to be found on the website of the Phillip Island & District Historical Society.
Palm Island and Thursday Island (Queensland):
Palm and Thursday islands are located off the coast of Queensland with Palm Island near the coast at Townsville and Thursday Island in the Torres Strait off the far northern tip of Queensland. These islands are mentioned because of their unique status as former Indigenous Missions and the fact that both former missions once had brass bands.
This post will not go into the pros and cons of Indigenous missions aside to say that they existed and are part of Australia’s history. It was a very different time with different attitudes, and we can only assume that the people who once ran these institutions thought they were doing the right thing by Indigenous people. A brass band was obviously seen as a binding activity and one which other Australians would accept.
Unfortunately, the language in local newspapers that mentioned the bands were as one would expect from this time. There was interest in the island bands and we see in an article from 1926 published in The Northern Miner newspaper that the bandmaster of The Towers Concert Band visited the island to assist the Indigenous conductor and was duly thanked in a letter from the Palm Island Band conductor (“PALM ISLAND BAND,” 1926). By some accounts, the people of the island appreciated the fact that a brass band, as well as a football team and cricket team, had been set up by the Superintendent of the settlement, and certainly, these were seen as worthwhile activities (Watson, 2005). In 1927 the football team and brass band visited Townsville and apparently “astonished” the crowd – for both football and music (“FOOTBALL,” 1927).
Slightly differently, the Thursday Island Brass Band once included “white and black players” pre-war but was reformed after the war with just aboriginal musicians (“ISLANDERS’ BRASS BAND,” 1952). Both bands were clearly still in operation in the 1950’s, but clearly the novelty of having Indigenous bands had not changed, despite this cited article providing additional information (“‘Band music provides healthy interest for aborigines’,” 1953). In 1954 the Palm Island Brass Band was to be included in a mass-gathering of bands in Townsville to greet Queen Elizabeth (“Townsville Band Festival,” 1954).
We can always judge the attitudes of the time as being unfortunate and the language as patronising. We also know that there are still bands dotted across the Top End and some very good music programs that are helping to reform a culture of Indigenous community bands (Cray, 2013; Sexton-McGrath, 2014). In some respects, these former Mission bands as well as other mainland mission bands created a legacy that has given new life to new bands.
Peel Island (Queensland) and Norfolk Island:
We come now to Peel Island and Norfolk Island, both very different places yet both have interesting pasts.
Peel Island is located in Moreton Bay, Brisbane and is a former Quarantine Station. Yet for many years it housed people forcibly removed from home and family for being contracted with Leprosy. By all accounts, this was harsh, isolated, unforgiving and primitive place and it accommodated people from all backgrounds and races (Brown, 2018). The churches were the only organisations to try to bring comfort to the inmates and it is noted in 1928 that one Churchman made an appeal for an Eb Bass for a member of the Peel Island Brass Band (“CHURCH NEWS.,” 1928).
This is the first evidence we have that there was a band of sorts on Peel Island and newspaper articles sporadically reported on the various iterations of the band (“SIDE DRUM WANTED FOR PEEL ISLAND’S BAND,” 1945). Likewise, there are also reports of bands visiting the Island to entertain the inmates – the picture below is of a Salvation Army band visiting Peel Island in 1920 and in 1939 the Brisbane Juvenile Band was part of a concert party (“Concert At Peel Island,” 1939).
Norfolk Island is another place with a very interesting past and the inhabitants are extremely proud of their history (Low, 2012). Located off the coast of NSW, the inhabitants display a very independent streak, despite their association with Australia. Which makes it all the more interesting that there is mention of a brass band that once existed on Norfolk Island. There is not much to indicate the brass band existed apart from rare mentions in Australian newspapers. We see mentions of a band in 1904, 1905 and 1926 where they are mentioned as being in attendance at official events and for rehearsing every week (Barnes, 1926; “NORFOLK ISLAND.,” 1904; “NORFOLK ISLAND.,” 1905). It is unclear when the Norfolk Island Band officially started or ended.
It is quite clear that these early brass bands of our islands had their own unique histories, although one might call them quirks. While there are many similarities to other bands located on the mainland, the isolation and geography meant they had to be innovative and were also part of their communities. It is fortunate that we can read about them now and wonder at their existence. The knowledge that some of them existed in questionable environments is also a wonder but also indicates that they were a sign of the times.
We appreciate that these bands were part of a greater movement and that we can acknowledge the history.
‘Band music provides healthy interest for aborigines’. (1953, 19 January). Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50564060
Barnes, J. (1926, 11 June). UNDER BLUE SKIES : Life on Norfolk Island : No. 4. Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 – 1950), 9. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104960531
Brown, A. (2018, 07 July). Queensland’s last leper colony reveals its secrets. Brisbane Times. https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/queensland-s-last-leper-colony-reveals-its-secrets-20180704-p4zpd1.html
CHURCH NEWS. (1928, 29 September). Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article21343088
Concert At Peel Island. (1939, 26 March). Sunday Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1926 – 1954), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98238889
COWES BANDMEN HANDLE CHICORY CROP. (1934, 09 July). Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), 8. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article243161356
Cowes turned out to meet the Governor. (1953, 22 January). Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), 16. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article23223484
Cray, S. (2013, 14 August). Brass band babies. ABC Radio National. Retrieved 14 August 2013 from https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/archived/intothemusic/brass-band-babies/4887046
ENTHUSIASTIC INSTRUMENTALISTS. (1908, 11 July). Kangaroo Island Courier (Kingscote, SA : 1907 – 1951), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article191629848
FOOTBALL : Aboriginal Team. : Defeats Townsville. (1927, 26 September). Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld. : 1906 – 1954), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article173762864
ISLANDERS’ BRASS BAND. (1952, 31 May). Brisbane Telegraph (Qld. : 1948 – 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article216499386
Kangaroo Island Pioneers Association. (2019). History. Kangaroo Island Pioneers Association. Retrieved 28 January 2019 from https://www.kipioneers.org/history
KING ISLAND : Grassy News. (1918, 21 May). Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50981378
“King Island.” “Fat Stock for Victoria.” “Dear Beef for Launceston.”. (1914, 29 May). King Island News (Currie, King Island : 1912 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article217035552
THE KINGSCOTE BAND. (1921, 19 March). Kangaroo Island Courier (Kingscote, SA : 1907 – 1951), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article191552031
Kingscote Brass Band Items. (1907, 21 December). Kangaroo Island Courier (Kingscote, SA : 1907 – 1951), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article191635685
Low, M. K. (2012). Putting down roots : belonging and the politics of settlement on Norfolk Island (Publication Number 9451462) [PhD, University of Western Australia, School of Social Sciences]. University of Western Australia Research Repository. Perth, Western Australia. https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/putting-down-roots-belonging-and-the-politics-of-settlement-on-no
MUSIC FOR WATCHERS BY THE SEA. (1906, 21 November). Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 – 1929), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article56693536
No title. (1916, 17 March). King Island News (Currie, King Island : 1912 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212036865
No title. (1919, 08 January). King Island News (Currie, King Island : 1912 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212038832
NORFOLK ISLAND. (1904, 22 March). Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article19271611
NORFOLK ISLAND : Empire Celebration. (1905, 26 June). Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14687675
PALM ISLAND BAND : An interesting letter. (1926, 13 February). Northern Miner (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1874 – 1954), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article80657422
Phillip Island Brass Band, 1932. (1932). [Photograph]. [phot16005]. The Internet Bandsman Everything Within, Vintage Brass Band Pictures : Australia. http://www.ibew.org.uk/vbbp-oz.html
PHILLIP ISLAND BRASS BAND. (1923, 30 May). Frankston and Somerville Standard (Vic. : 1921 – 1939), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article75954089
Royal South Street Society. (1932, 29 October). 1932-10-29 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved 28 January 2019 from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1932-10-29-brass-band-contests
Royal South Street Society. (1934, 03 November). 1934-11-03 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved 28 January 2019 from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1934-11-03-brass-band-contests
Sealink Travel Group. (2019). About Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Sealink. Retrieved 28 January 2019 from https://www.sealink.com.au/about-kangaroo-island/
Sexton-McGrath, K. (2014, 09 November). Yarabah Band Festival: Return of the brass band brings thousands out to Indigenous community. ABC News Queensland. Retrieved 31 January 2019 from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-11-09/yarrabah-band-festival-brass-band-brings-thousands-to-community/5877834
SIDE DRUM WANTED FOR PEEL ISLAND’S BAND. (1945, 27 June). Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article48954474
Townsville Band Festival. (1954, 09 February). Northern Miner (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1874 – 1954), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article81658839
Unidentified. (1920). Salvation Army brass band visiting Peel Island Lazaret during 1920s [copy print : b&w]. . Brisbane John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland, OneSearch. https://hdl.handle.net/10462/deriv/208680
Unidentified. (1931). Palm Island Brass Band, Queensland [photographic print : black & white , 1931.]. . Brisbane John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland, One Search. https://hdl.handle.net/10462/deriv/220300
Victorian Bands League. (1935, 08 October). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203851495
Visiting Band. (1947, 30 August). Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 – 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article52603726