The secretary will arrange for supply of Brasso etc. for polishing all instruments on the journey and the management committee will inspect the instruments from time to time. Members are asked to note that it is imperative to have hair cut very short (back and sides) and all wearing black shoes laced alike – with no tags showing.(“Rules and Itinerary,” 1937)
If the above directive from the conductor and management of the Longreach Town Band seems a bit onerous, one could say it was a sign of the times. Except, this was not a sign of the times. It reflects the efforts that the band associations and individual bands went to ensure that all band members upheld the reputation of the movement. Which could be summarised as looking sharp and behaving properly according to a defined set of rules. Deportment of a band and band members was taken very seriously. Contemporary band members will relate to these concepts even now.
Deportment was regarded seriously enough that points were won and lost in various contests if there was any infraction of the contest rules. Inspection before the Quickstep section of a contest was part and parcel of the event, although some judges took it to extremes. Rules was generally standard and enforced by band associations. When a contest came down to mere points, the deportment of an individual mattered greatly.
In this post we will be exploring deportment in relation to the band movement and by default, the process of inspection and the governing rules. While we may not see exactly where these rules on deportment eventuated (or why) this aspect of the band movement is interesting. For a movement that prides itself on tradition, this is one tradition that holds true today.
Deportment can be literally defined as a “the way a person behaves” or “manner of bearing” (Cambridge English Dictionary, 2021). For a band member, their deportment was judged by everyone who looked at them, with perception of their behaviour judged by others. Throughout the newspaper articles that mention band competitions, or from some bands themselves, we can find references to deportment and the expectations that band associations and bands held for their members. Were band members expected to model higher standards of behaviour and dress than that of other people? If one were to believe the newspaper articles, then yes, they were seemingly held to higher standards. Hence, lists of competition rules were created that band members were expected to adhere to – these will be examined later in the post. Harking back to the expectations and standards the Longreach Town Band set for themselves, we find in the second-last paragraph of the article,
Win or lose, remember we are representing the far central west. Impress people with your good conduct. Be on the alert always to gain a point. No arguments, no bad feeling, plenty of rest, and the good comradeship element will go towards successes in this ambitious effort.(“Rules and Itinerary,” 1937)
This is but one example of expectations that a band held for their members. Generally speaking, bands and band members were extremely well-behaved and dressed, and compliance with the many rules governing behaviour and dress were followed rigorously. However, that was not to say that there were other problems; bandsmen were people too. Digging deeper we find an article from 1911 where the Band Association New South Wales (BANSW) scolded the behaviour of bandsmen in a general way. This article published in the Daily Advertiser newspaper let everyone know that bandsmen were on notice – the start and end of the article are quoted here.
It is probably that the New South Wales Bands’ Association will take some action at an early date in the direction of impressing on bandsmen when visiting contests the advisability of being as circumspect in their deportment and behaviour as the average citizen is expected to be. On the march and when engage in the contest work, bandsmen as a rule are role models of discipline and behaviour.
It should be unnecessary for the Bands’ Association to have to prescribe a standard of conduct for bandsmen, but unfortunately the utter disregard for the feelings of others displayed by some few of the members of the numerous bands appears to render that course desirable.”(“BANDMEN’S BEHAVIOR“, 1911)
This was not the first time and last time that the behavioural expectations of band members would be mentioned in print. The other side of this was a reminder to the public that band members were models of good behaviour, a way to promote bands as a very wholesome activity. Writing about the setting up of school bands in a 1929 issue of The Australasian Band and Orchestra News magazine, the Editor wrote,
As they advance in their studies, the boys are in all probability invited to practise with the senior bands in their districts. They become bandsmen, they find good occupation in their leisure, their minds are disciplined, and everyone knows that the good bandsman is never a bad citizen.(“THE EDITOR’S BATON,” 1929)
A further reminder on deportment, this time to do with uniforms and dress, was issued by the Queensland Band Association in April 1930 when Mr. J. R. Foster (Secretary) was quoted in The Evening News newspaper, of which the article can be seen below.
Many of the issues surrounding deportment was seemingly applied to male band members. What of our female bands? We know that from a previous post there were very few of them around Australia, and when we do see mention of them, there is some indication that they also took the behaviour of their members quite seriously (de Korte, 2018a). The famous Sydney Ladies’ Band prided themselves on their behaviour and attitude. An article published by the Australian Women’s Weekly in 1938 detailed some of the behaviours that were frowned upon.
Boy-friends are not encouraged by the Band, because they would occupy valuable time that should be otherwise allotted to practice.
Married women are not accepted as members because their home ties distract them and they must ask their husbands’ permission to travel to country or interstate engagements.(“SPINSTERS ONLY is the SLOGAN of the BAND,” 1938)
Hilda Tansey, the conductor of the Sydney Ladies’ Band outlined some other expectations, and it appears, she had a very dim view of ladies who transgressed.
Occasionally we get ‘passengers’ in the band – girls who join just to show off to their boy friends in our smart green uniform. But within a fortnight we discover them and we tell them in no uncertain terms that they have played their finale.(Tansey in “SPINSTERS ONLY is the SLOGAN of the BAND,” 1938)
This photograph below of the Sydney Ladies’ Band from 1934 shows the members in the said uniform.
The deportment of band members was an issue that held the attention of some band commentators, to the extent they even sponsored prizes in major competitions, for example, Cecil Clarence Mullen (Royal South Street Society, 1959, 1964). We saw in an earlier post that Mullen had much to say about the band movement, and deportment on the stage while playing and conducting was one of those issues he took to heart (de Korte, 2020; Mullen, 1951). To refresh, Mullen was most displeased with “boys between 11 and 18 years in many cases taking a chair and sitting down to play their solo” (Mullen, 1951, p. 61). He also took issue with bandmasters who let this happen in the first place. Mullen was ever the commentator to let his opinions be known and although I cannot find any record of him adjudicating, he finished the little section on deportment in his book with these words,
On several occasions in recent years I have been called upon to judge solo competitions in school, suburban and country competitions and make no secret of the fact that I rang boys off very quickly for bad stage deportment. The late Mr. E. T. Code, the best trainer of boys we have ever had, was very strict in these matters.(Mullen, 1951, p. 62)
Mullen had reason to criticise the deportment of younger band members, especially while playing, and he was possibly right in saying that they should not be sitting down as it affected their breathing (Mullen, 1951).
Negotiating the issues surrounding the deportment of band members were complex and time consuming. However, as we will see in the next section, some areas of deportment, namely looking smart, were easier to manage. And for bands, being very much in the visual space as well as a musical space was important – cleanliness of uniforms was taken as seriously as behaviour.
Issues about the supply and funding of uniforms were touched on in a previous post about supplying the essentials for bands (de Korte, 2018c). Bands wanted to look smart on parade and expected their members to wear their uniforms with pride. They also expected their members to look after their uniforms. On occasions though, uniforms were the issue. In an earlier post on the first band sections at South Street Ballarat, we found that the conductor of the Launceston Garrison Band lamented that his band lost points because of “the stained and worn-out state of the Government uniforms” which were “severely condemned by the military judge” (de Korte, 2018b; “THE INTERCOLONIAL BAND CONTEST.,” 1900).
Uniforms were a much commented on part of bands in the media, even if the language of old newspaper might make us wince at times. The word ‘smart’ was a common descriptor linked to deportment regarding dress. In an article published by the Toowoomba Chronicle and Darling Downs Gazette in 1924, each band that participated in the Toowoomba contest that year received some sort of comment regarding their appearance, bearing, colours of uniform, and cleanliness of instruments (“INSPECTION OF BANDS,” 1924).
The two pictures below from The Sun and Daily News newspapers showing the Sydney Ladies’ Band and the East Kew Junior Brass Band provide perfect examples of this language being used. Although, in the caption for the Sydney Ladies’ Band, the word ‘pretty’ was also used to describe the members. Nevertheless, a band that was dressed smartly attracted attention. It spoke of a band that took pride in their appearance and demeanour. And especially when participating in contests and other events where the band was on show, a proper uniform was a must.
The Quickstep and Inspection:
|Unsteadiness in Ranks||1 point for each offender|
|Untrimmed hair||1 point for each offender|
|Unshaven||1 point for each offender|
|Irregularities of Dress||1 point for each offender|
|Irregularities of Footwear||1 point for each offender|
|Incorrect Dressing||1 point for each offender|
|Incorrect Intervals||1 point for each offender|
|Dirty Instruments||1 point for each offender|
|Talking in the Ranks||1 point for each offender|
The band movement in Australia and New Zealand can be based on holdovers from the United Kingdom, with some key differences that become apparent in band contests. Unlike their counterparts in the U.K., a feature of the band movements and contests in Australia and New Zealand was the Quickstep sections and the preceding military-style Inspection. This post will provide a brief overview of the Quickstep and then focus on the Inspection, which is an aspect directly related to the topic of this post.
The Quickstep section that featured in Australian and New Zealand band contests for over one hundred years semes to be an invention by the band movements of both countries. Accounts are sketchy as to how it started, however, an article published in the Kalgoorlie Miner newspaper 1911 provides a little history.
The origin of the quickstep first came prominently before the Australian public at contests held in connection with the Druids’ Gala at Melbourne about 11 years ago. On that occasion the drill performed was very much the nature of cavalry section drill, but it was subsequently modified to conform to the infantry manual.(“BRASS BAND CONTESTS.,” 1911)
Based on this account and history, this would mean that quickstep sections first appeared in Australian band contests around the late 1890s, and we can find evidence of this in an account of the Druids’ Gala published by The Age newspaper on Monday 11th April 1898.
The marching and deportment of the men will be taken into consideration by the judge, Mr. F. Lyon, in awarding the prizes of £50, £20 and £10 offered for the military drill contest, the principal features of which were enacted at the gardens. Each band fell in for inspection separately, and marched 100 yards in 120 paces within a minute, to a quickstep, following up this performance by wheeling and countermarching manœuvres to appropriate music.(“THE EASTER HOLIDAYS.,” 1898)
Some British judges who were brought out to adjudicate the contests had never seen anything like it and commented favorably on the section and what it represented. In 1902 James Ord Hume adjudicated at the famous South Street Eisteddfod and had this to say about the Quickstep section.
I thoroughly endorse the idea of this quickstep contests, as I am of opinion that brass bands, when marching, should always be spirited and also neat and uniform in the ranks. The music should be always of a bright and military nature and, indeed, the band should always prove by its marching in public, its standard of excellence.(James Ord Hume in “THE INTER-STATE BAND CONTEST.,” 1902)
Three years later the South Street contest was adjudicated by Mr. Albert Wade from Wales, and he also was impressed with the Quickstep section.
But the marching was of the best and Mr. Wade found in the military style of the civilian bandsmen an example for the straggling Britishers who compose the village band in the old country.(“BIG BAND BATTLES.,” 1905)
Unfortunately, there seems to be no films of early Quickstep contests in Australia. However, New Zealand’s Ngã Taonga Sound & Vision has in their resources a short film dating back to 1912 of the Dunedin Brass Band contests, Quickstep section (Gore, 1912). The link below will show a short film of this Quickstep section where the military judges can clearly be seen pacing the bands and taking notes.
Dunedin Brass Band Contest, Quickstep (F9933)
This part of the post started with a list of rules governing the Inspection published by the newly formed Australian Band Council in 1934. Every aspect of appearance and behaviour were detailed in various rules, and Duncan Bythell (2000) notes that “The rules for marching contests achieved a terrifying complexity, with the marks for being awarded for smart appearance and successful drilling than for musicianship.” (p. 236). Some bands bore the brunt of these rules with band members being penalised on numerous occasions at contests. The Wellington Garrison Band travelled to the Bathurst contests in 1899 from New Zealand and found themselves on the receiving end of the rules when nine bandsmen were penalised because they were unshaven – the band apparently “forgot” the regulations (“Bathurst Band Contest.,” 1899; “UNSHAVEN BANDSMEN,” 1899).
The research by Bythell can be corroborated by the band journals of the day as controversy surrounding the inspection was never hard to find. Accounts of an A.N.A contest in Melbourne were penned by many commentators in the January 1913 issue of The State Band News with a writer colloquially titled ‘Clarion’ detailing the inspection in his article, of which excerpts are quoted here.
For length of time occupied and the keen inspection each man received a “record” was easily established.
Some wags, who were getting impatient, struck up with great enthusiasm the “Midnight National Anthem”.”
The principal comment was – A contest does not consist of inspection.
Many bandsmen complained that points were taken off for marks on the slides of instruments – the said marks being put there for tuning purposes.
Beyond the general essentials of clean instruments, uniforms, haircuts, etc., no one seemed to know if any hard and fast rules were laid down for an inspection of this kind – evidently, it is left to the discretion of the drill judge.
The fact that Color Sergeant Humphries is the author of the official drill book used in connection with Quickstep Contests, no doubt is accountable for the very rigours inspection.(Clarion, 1913, p. 5)
The writer of the opening article in the mentioned issue of The State Band News pointedly recommended that the Victorian Bands’ Association (V.B.A.) limit the inspection process to “5 minutes per band.” (“Band Chat,” 1913, p. 2).
As in the Quickstep, the whole theatre and process of the Inspection was a measure of comparison between contests in Australia and the United Kingdom. In 1907, Mr D. J. Montague, a musician from Ballarat, returned from an eight month tour of England, Scotland and Wales where he was fortunate enough to view many of the great band contests and compare them to the South Street Eisteddfod (“BRITISH VERSUS AUSTRALIAN BAND MUSIC.,” 1907). His interview with the Ballarat Star newspaper was wide-ranging and provided an interesting account comparing the band movements in both countries. Here in this article, we can see his thoughts on why the Inspection was a beneficial part of Australian and New Zealand contests.
He remarked that one difference between the contests in Great Britain and those in Australia was that here time is not so much account as in the old land. For instance, the great Crystal Palace and Belle Vue contests last only one day. The bands travel all night from far distant parts of England and Scotland to reach London early in the morning, and numbers of bandsmen are playing in various parts of the day. After the contest is over they hurry back by the night trains for home. He found that the bandsmen were very careless over their instruments, which were nearly always dirty and unpolished, and he took occasion to introduce to the directors’ notice the inspection and drill system obtaining at South Street, which resulted in smart looking bandsmen and clean instruments.(“BRITISH VERSUS AUSTRALIAN BAND MUSIC.,” 1907)
While it was evident that many band members were very responsible when it came to keeping clean and tidy, there are accounts of the supporters of a band helping when needed. Maureen French, a local writer from Clunes in Victoria, wrote a book on the history of bands in Creswick titled ‘Following the bands : a journey down the years with the brass bands of Creswick’. She wrote a section on the Creswick and District Band experiences in the Quickstep and Inspection and details this little anecdote about how the band tidied themselves up.
But the greatest contribution was made by the small army of womenfolk who accompanied the band at competitions.
Points could be lost for dirty shoes, missing buttons, untidy hair, etc. With that in mind, once the players had assembled on parade, these good ladies would swarm over them, armed with clothes brushes, spit-and-polish, and all accoutrements required to remove a miniscule of fluff that could tarnish the image of their charges. All this of course, was a labour of love.(French, 2013, p. 64)
As mentioned, the Inspection could either win or lose a band points. If we were to look at some of the accounts of contests where comments of judges were recorded, they are telling. Below is an excerpt from an article published by the Shepparton News newspaper in February 1914 detailing the judges’ comments on the contest that was held in town. These comments directly relate to the Inspection and the four bands that participated were the Shepparton Town Band, Rochester Brass Band, Benalla Brass Band and Shepparton Model Band (“INSPECTION.,” 1914).
Likewise, at a contest being administered by the Queensland Band Association in 1929, they left no doubt as to what would be taking place during the Inspection part of the contest (and every other event that was being undertaken during the day).
At the commencement each band is moved onto the grounds, and then marched to the oval and inspected by military judges, points being allocated for military deportment, appearance, smartness in the ranks, cleanliness of instruments and uniform.(“TO-DAY’S PROGRAMME,” 1929)
Interesting that the expectation of the bands is that they display a military-like bearing, despite the bands (it is assumed) to be civilian.
No doubt the regulations on deportment were quite clear and it was up to the bands to adhere to them. As a measure of how points were deducted, we can read what happened to the Mackay Concert Band during a contest in Rockhampton in 1934.
The discipline of the band on parade was somewhat lacking, inasmuch as points were lost for detail in dress, deportment, and drill. For untidiness the band lost four points – two for untrimmed hair and two for unshaven faces, and for bad movements in drill four points were lost, making a deduction of 8 points from the maximum of 40, leaving the band with 32.(“Concert Band.,” 1934)
One must not disregard all opinion of the Inspection process. While it was an important part of contest proceedings (and still is to some extent), every so often bands people advocated for change. One of them was Frank “Massa” Johnston, the famous band conductor from Melbourne who in 1939 was the conductor of the Melbourne Fire Brigade Band. He made some comments after coaching the Maryborough Federal Band at the 1939 Bundaberg contest which were detailed in an article published by the Central Queensland Herald newspaper (“BAND JUDGING IN QUEENSLAND,” 1939). One of his suggestions to the Q.B.A. was the Inspection of bands be eliminated as a separate part of the contest and instead “be incorporated with the diagram march with additional points for drill and appearance” (“BAND JUDGING IN QUEENSLAND,” 1939).
While diagram marching has fallen out of favour at band contests, street marching, and the inspection remain a part to this day, especially at the Australian National Band Championships. It is interesting to occasionally read commentary on the ubiquitous social media – modern bands people can be known to be passionate about rules and regulations. Bearing in mind that much of what we do as bands and band members has some grounding in history.
There is much we can still learn about how bands of old handled the rules and regulations on deportment, and how they managed expectations. Pride in appearance and behaviour was one aspect, but there was also the public perception. Perhaps if we were to take a critical view, maybe the Inspection was over-policed by band associations. However, the Inspection, and the visual display of the Quickstep, were pointed differences between the band movements of Australia & New Zealand, and the band movement in the United Kingdom. There was pride in doing something differently and doing it well.
Australian Band Council. (1934). Australian Band Council : Constitution : Contest Rules : Quickstep Regulations and Instructions [Constitution]. Oxford Press.
Band Chat. (1913). The State Band News, 4(6), 2 & 4.
BAND JUDGING IN QUEENSLAND. (1939, 20 April). Central Queensland Herald (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1930 – 1956), 59. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70844529
BANDMEN’S BEHAVIOR. (1911, 26 May). Daily Advertiser (Wagga Wagga, NSW : 1911 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article143079764
BANDSMEN ON PARADE. (1939, 18 December). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), 8. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article135450896
Bandsmen, Please Note! (1930, 17 April). Evening News (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1924 – 1941), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article202494392
Bathurst Band Contest : Complaints from New Zealand. (1899, 17 November). Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (NSW : 1851 – 1904), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63910068
BIG BAND BATTLES : IN CITY OF STATUES : MEN FROM BOULDER CITY : ARE AUSTRALIA’S CHAMPIONS. : (From our special representative). (1905, 07 November). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 – 1931), 7. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113288815
BRASS BAND CONTESTS : The Quickstep. (1911, 30 August). Kalgoorlie Miner (WA : 1895 – 1950), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91325368
BRITISH VERSUS AUSTRALIAN BAND MUSIC : INTERVIEW WITH MR D. J. MONTAGUE. (1907, 08 January). Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 – 1924), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210885760
Bythell, D. (2000). The Brass Band in the Antipodes : The Transplantation of British Popular Culture. In T. Herbert (Ed.), The British brass band : a musical and social history (pp. 217-244). Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press.
Cambridge English Dictionary. (2021). Deportment. In Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 16 October 2021, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/deportment
Clarion. (1913). A.N.A. Contests. : Contest Side-Lights. The State Band News, 4(6), 4-8.
Concert Band : CONTEST ADJUDICATOR’S COMMENTS. (1934, 05 April). Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld. : 1906 – 1954), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article173312584
de Korte, J. D. (2018a, 22 April). Early female brass bands in Australia: they were rare but they made their mark. Band Blasts from the Past : Anecdotes, Stories and Personalities. https://bandblastsfromthepast.blog/2018/04/22/early-female-brass-bands-in-australia-they-were-rare-but-they-made-their-mark/
de Korte, J. D. (2018b, 22 December). The first South Street band contest in October, 1900. Band Blasts from the Past : Anecdotes, Stories and Personalities. https://bandblastsfromthepast.blog/2018/12/22/the-first-south-street-band-contest-in-october-1900/
de Korte, J. D. (2018c, 08 July). Instruments, sheet music and uniforms: how the bands of old obtained the essentials. Band Blasts from the Past : Anecdotes, Stories and Personalities. https://bandblastsfromthepast.blog/2018/05/13/instruments-sheet-music-and-uniforms-how-the-bands-of-old-obtained-the-essentials/
de Korte, J. D. (2020, 06 March). Cecil Clarence Mullen: Enthusiastic commentator, historian and statistician of brass and military bands. Band Blasts from the Past : Anecdotes, Stories and Personalities. https://bandblastsfromthepast.blog/2020/03/06/cecil-clarence-mullen-enthusiastic-commentator-historian-and-statistician-of-brass-and-military-bands/
de Korte, J. D. (2021). Lake Wendouree, Vic. : The Courier (Newspaper) : 1949 Royal South Street Band competitions – City Oval : B Grade Bands – Inspection [Photograph (Newspaper photograph)]. [IMG_6741]. Jeremy de Korte, Newington, Victoria.
THE EASTER HOLIDAYS. : DRUIDS’ GALA. : OPENING DAY. : A GREAT ATTENDANCE. (1898, 11 April). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article191489906
THE EDITOR’S BATON: Bringing up the boy to the band. (1929). The Australasian Band and Orchestra News, XXV(2), 1 & 3.
French, M. E. C. (2013). Following the bands : a journey down the years with the brass bands of Creswick. Maureen E. C. French.
Gore, H. C. (1912). Dunedin Brass Band Contest, Quickstep [Moving Image]. New Zealand / Aotearoa, New Queens Theatre, Dunedin. https://ngataonga.org.nz/collections/catalogue/catalogue-item?record_id=67764
INSPECTION. (1914, 16 February). Shepparton News (Vic. : 1914 – 1918), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129652799
INSPECTION OF BANDS. (1924, 19 April). Toowoomba Chronicle and Darling Downs Gazette (Qld. : 1922 – 1933), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article253775325
THE INTER-STATE BAND CONTEST : MR. J. ORD HUME’S CRITICISMS : WHAT HE SAYS ABOUT TASMANIAN BANDS : DETAILS OF RESULTS : (“Ballarat Star”). (1902, 06 November). Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article9590543
THE INTERCOLONIAL BAND CONTEST : Return of the Second Battalion Band. (1900, 11 October). Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tas. : 1883 – 1928), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article153769022
Mullen, C. C. (1951). Mullen’s Bandsmen of South Street (1900-1951). Horticultural Press.
Regent Studio. (1923, 02 April). A GRADE TEST SELECTION. Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), 5-6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article20611772
Royal South Street Society. (1959). 1959-10-23 Brass Band Contests [Eisteddfod Results]. Royal South Street Society Results Database. https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1959-10-23-brass-band-contests
Royal South Street Society. (1964). 1964-10-24 Victorian Brass Band Championship [Eisteddfod Results]. Royal South Street Society Results Database. https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1964-10-24-victorian-brass-band-championship
Rules and Itinerary : CORONATION BAND CONTEST : EASTER 1937 : LONGREACH TOWN BAND. (1937, 13 March). Longreach Leader (Qld. : 1923 – 1954), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37363142
SPINSTERS ONLY is the SLOGAN of the BAND : Musical Girls who Have Little Time for Cupid. (1938, 19 February). Australian Women’s Weekly (1933 – 1982), 40. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article51590948
Sydney Ladies’ Brass Band [picture]. (1934). [1 photographic print on cardboard mount : gelatin silver, hand col. ; 30 x 40 cm.]. [pi007746]. State Library Victoria, Tansey family collection. http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/336537
TO-DAY’S PROGRAMME. (1929, 18 August). Sunday Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1926 – 1954), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article97690827
UNSHAVEN BANDSMEN. (1899, 10 November). Hawke’s Bay Herald. https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/HBH18991184.108.40.206