A room to call their own: the space and place for bands

20191019-10.46_Orange_Band-Hall1
The old Orange City Band Hall (Photograph taken by Jeremy de Korte, 19/10/2019)

Introduction:

There is no doubting that bands need material items to help them function as a band, as they do now.  And so, a previous post was written regarding instruments, sheet music and uniforms and how bands obtained such items .  Perhaps it was remiss of that post not to mention band rooms as an added essential item.  However, when researching for this current post, that omission is now justified – there is lots of historical writing on band rooms!

For the early bands, finding a room to practice in was no easy task.  We shall see that some of them were housed in stables, auction rooms, schools, rotundas and most were subject to the whims and mercies of their local councils.  A number of bands had to solicit funds from the general public for a variety of items, rooms included.  For some bands, they were able to build their own band room.  Bands that were attached to an industry were lucky enough to have rooms provided for them.

There is a similarity in the stories from across Australia when it came to bands and their rooms.  No doubt the bands themselves would have shared some of the stories when they met at events and competitions.  Bands, while competitive, are also collegial.

It is regarding band rooms that we see bands being innovative and inventive.  For the early bands, finding their own place and space was an achievement. Here are some of the stories.

Space, place and memory:

Before this post delves into the practical stories on band rooms, it is important to explore the meaning of a band room to a community, to bands and to people.  The concept of space and place helps to explain this meaning – it is what is termed, “humanistic geography”; “A place can be seen as space that has meaning” (Selten & van der Zandt, 2011).  However, the concept of space and place should not be seen as entirely geographical.  There is social meaning as well.  It is people who provide meaning to a place and within places communities are made.

For a local band, having their own room was of great importance, they needed places to practice.  And having their own room gave them a sense of connectedness to the local community.  As Mackay (2005) writes in his article, “…connection to place is vital to our sense of identity – both personal and communal.” (Mackay, 2005).  To be able to inform a local community that their band was rehearsing in a certain place also gave the band a sense of local identity.  Rooms were a place to call home, where band members could rehearse and were also part of a band’s history.  A room was a source of pride:

The powerful sense of that place – the look of it, the feel of it, the smell of it – will stir all kind of emotions in you, positive and negative, not accessible via mere memory. (Mackay, 2005)

00000000_Jerilderie-Town-Band_phot6408
Jerilderie Town Band, date unknown. (Source: Internet Bandsmen’s Everthing Within)

For some bands people, the room gave them a sense of connectedness with the local community and their fellow band members.  Often, all it takes is a mention of the room to trigger a strong memory.  Mr H. A. McVittie, former bandmaster of the Jerilderie Town Band mentions reading a paragraph published in the Jerilderie Herald and Urana Advertiser newspaper in April 1945 about the destruction of the old band hall by fire (“Jerilderie Shire Council,” 1945).  For Mr. McVittie, this act triggered very strong memories, not only for the band room, but for himself and his fellow band members.  The article published in May 1945 opens:

Mr. H. A. McVittie, writing from Collarenebri, where he conducts the Collarenebri “Gazette,” has had memories of his old home town awakened by a paragraph which appeared in a recent issue of this paper, in which the destruction by fire of the old band room in Eastern Park was recorded.  Says Mac:-

I was given some sort of a pulsation the other day when the “Herald” arrived and I read of the destruction of the old band room in the Eastern Park.  IF there was one place more than another that held for me many happy recollections of my old home town it was the old bandroom.  If I remember correctly it was built there by the one-time Jerilderie Municipal Council and placed at the disposal of the Jerilderie Town Band as a practice room. (“The Old Bandroom,” 1945).

The remainder of the article is devoted to Mr. McVittie’s memories big and small, and it is wonderful to read these stories.  In the finishing paragraph, he wrote this poignant observation:

Well old towners, I must close down on this somewhat hurried and disjointed sketch.  But I feel that you will excuse me for just a passing memory of the old room that gave to me so many pleasant hours. (“The Old Bandroom,” 1945)

This is just one example of a strong connection to place that a bands person has.  For Mr. McVittie however, the story does not end with the initial article in May as two months later, he writes to the Jerilderie Herald and Urana Advertiser newspaper again.  One memory triggered many others, and old Jerilderie band people wrote to Mr. McVittie in Collarenebri and detailed their own connections with the band, the room and Jerilderie.

My memories of the old band room, which were recently published in the “Herald,” seem to have stirred the embers of the past and rekindled interest in the good old days – the days when we were young.  Letters have come to me from the most unexpected quarters in which the writers touch on some old Jerilderie theme or other, prompted by my references to the old band room, sketchy and incomplete as they were. (“OLD MEMORIES NEVER DIE,” 1945)

It would be fair to say that other bands people share similar recollections of their rooms and the social and musical connections that they made while associated with that place.  However, in order to allow this connectedness to develop, bands had to have their rooms…

Building:

19250201_South-Melbourne-Bandroom-Opening
South Melbourne City Band Grand Opening of Band Room & Rotunda, 01/02/1925 – march card backing. (Source: Victorian Bands’ League Library & Archive)

Building a band room was an option open to many bands – once they had found a suitable site and had raised the funds.  This was a task that was undertaken only by the most committed ensembles as a reliance on their own labour and the goodwill of subscribers was taxing.  Nevertheless, for the most part, it became achievable and the bands always had a sense of pride when they had a room they had built themselves.

Dealing with local councils and building regulations was the most difficult part as the Warragul Brass Band found in 1906.  They wanted to build a band room on a site that was currently being used by the local tennis and croquet clubs (“WARRAGUL BAND.,” 1906).  Unfortunately, the request was refused due to the incumbency of the said clubs at the site and the council wanting to build a new depot.  However, for the South Melbourne City Band, they had much more success with building a band room and a rotunda in 1925, as the march card backing above indicates.  They built their rotunda with labour provided by the bandsmen and friends for a total cost of £300 and held a grand opening and concert (“Albert Park Improvements.,” 1925).  This rotunda has unfortunately become a victim of change and is no longer in the park.

Then there was the fundraising aspect which either worked or did not work.  It is evident that communities were largely generous when the cause was right and the appeals from local bands were worthwhile.  The Hills Central Brass Band located in Adelaide was one group that laid out the reasons for their fundraising quite clearly in a 1912 article published in the Mount Barker Courier and Onkaparinga and Gumeracha Advertiser newspaper.  They held a concert to help with their building fund and implored the local community to help them:

It has been decided to hold a concert and social in the Mount Barker Institute on August 20 in aid of the Hills Central Brass Band building fund.  This is a most deserving institution and it is hoped that the public will recognise its usefulness and generosity by lending their patronage to this entertainment.  In all cases of distress and in many public festivities the band has volunteered assistance in the past and the least the public can do in return is to support it. (“HILLS CENTRAL BRASS BAND.,” 1912)

19210000_Collie-Brass-Band_slwa_b3507727_1
Collie Brass Band, winners of B Grade Championship, 1921 (Courtesy of the State Library of Western Australia: BA579/138)

Coming into 1918 we find that the Collie Brass Band from Perth was trying to secure land for a band room, and many supportive platitudes were written about the band by the colloquial writer ‘Bandsman’ in the local Collie Mail newspaper, and from this there was council support:

Some of the members are now playing in the leading Australian Military Bands in England and France and messages are continually coming through saying that they are keeping in form for the old band.  What would they say if on their return, they found the old band defunct?  It was within an ace of being so last winter solely through the lack of suitable practice room.

The Collie Council has realised the necessity and have promised to find a suitable block of land, knowing that a Band room will be an asset to the town and will always belong to the citizens as do the instruments and all other property of the band. (Bandsman, 1918)

Some years later in 1926, the Katanning Brass Band from Western Australia found itself wanting to build their own room and they also called for public support.  In an innovative move, the Katanning Brass Band formed a committee out of representatives from many other community organisations to guide the fundraising and building of a new band room (“Katanning Brass Band.,” 1926).  They were ultimately successful in this strategy.  After a year of work, in January 1927 they opened their new band room:

Monday evening last marked quite an epoch in the history of the Katanning Brass Band, the occasion being the opening their own practise room.  A brass band may be regarded as a sort of semi-public institutions and a public utility.

[…]

They have been very thankful for the use of the fire station and other buildings loaned to them from time to time, but it has not always been convenient for both parties, and thus many drawbacks have been encountered. Then early last year a brilliant idea emanated from somewhere, a scheme to carry out a gala day.  The bandsmen recognised their own inability to put the matter through, and so they invited the assistance and co-operation of the various sports of the village, the ladies, and in fact all who had the welfare of the band at heart, and a willingness to join in. (“Katanning Brass Band.,” 1927)

19131304_Millicent-Brass-Band_B-57528
Millicent Brass Band, 13/04/1913. (Courtesy of the State Library of South Australia: B+57528)

In South Australia, local citizen, benefactor and Patron of the Millicent Brass Band, a Mr. H. F. L. Holzgrefe, J.P., proudly laid the foundation stone of their new band room (“MILLICENT BRASS BAND.,” 1928).  This had been an important project for the Millicent Brass Band and the significance was not lost on Mr. Holzgrefe who made these remarks after laying the stone:

The foundation stone was inscribed :- “This stone was laid by H. F. L. Holzgrefe, J.P., May 19, 1928.”  After it had been declared “well and truly laid,” Mr. Holzgrefe said the bandsmen had acted wisely in building a room for their own use.  It would tend to keep the members united, and make practising easier in many ways.  A band was a very useful institution, and no community should be without one.

[…]

Mr. Tothill warmly thanked Mr. Holzgrefe for his handsome contribution.  He then asked him to accept from the band an inscribed silver trowel as a memento of the occasion.  The president’s remarks were warmly applauded and Mr. Holzgrefe received an ovation when he acknowledged the gift. (“MILLICENT BRASS BAND.,” 1928)

It was admirable that some bands around Australia managed to get the funds together and build their own band room.  Unfortunately, it is unclear just how many of these band rooms survive.  However, if the picture of the Orange Brass Band hall at the start of this post is anything to go by, no doubt, there are some around Australia that may have been repurposed. We only have to look for them.

Finding:

Short of building their own rooms, finding a suitable space was another option and whether the room was provided for bands by generous people or by councils, it was still a place to practice.  Again, there were instances when requests were mulled over as councils in particular were sometimes very officious.

To start with it is worth exploring the experiences of some industry bands.  They were often luckier than most as they were provided with rooms on or near the sites of their industry.  The Thompson’s Foundry Band gained their first room in 1894 on the site of the Thompson’s Foundry in Castlemaine (“FOUNDRY BAND-ROOM.,” 1894).  As reported in the Mount Alexander Mail newspaper:

The opening of the new Foundry band-room erected in Parker-street, was made the occasion of a social last night tendered by the President, Mr David Thompson.  The room, which is a commodious one for practice, is 25ft long, 10ft wide, and 12ft high.  It is nearly painted green, with a dado of chocolate colour. (“FOUNDRY BAND-ROOM.,” 1894).

It was also lucky for the Thompson’s Foundry Band that the head of the foundry was a great supporter of the band.  The Thompson’s Foundry Band still rehearse in a building associated with the foundry.

19129496_Advocate_De-La-Salle-Hall
Advocate, 06/04/1912, pg. 22. This buildng was added to the property of the nearby tram depot in 1930 and extended.

Likewise, the Malvern Tramways Band started out rehearsing in a room within the tram depot and then in 1930 they moved into old school buildings acquired by the tramways for the recreation of their employees (“BAND NEWS,” 1930).  The building, pictured above when it was De La Salle College, was renovated by the tramways to include two more spaces behind the original hall and was mainly used by various tramway employee clubs such as bands (both brass and harmonica) and sporting groups (Heritage Council Victoria, 1999).  It was soon after, in 1931, that the Malvern Tramways Band moved out of this building and into converted stables owned by the Malvern Council behind Northbook House.

20130727_Northbrook-Stables_south-side
(Former) Northbook House Stables. Now home to Stonnington City Brass (formerly Malvern Tramways Band). (Photo taken by Jeremy de Korte, 27/07/2013)

As mentioned, the local councils had quite an influence on how bands obtained rooms and as early as 1896 we see that disagreements sometimes arose, as was the instance between the Palmerston Brass Band in Darwin and the District Council.  Published among the many news items on the 4th of December1896, we can see this snippet in the Northern Territory Times and Gazette newspaper:

The collision between the Brass Band and the District Council has, we believe, had the effect of raising the charge for the Town Hall to a fixed figure for all societies and clubs using it.  By and bye, when the Masonic Hall is an established fact, the social public will not need to bother the Council, and the revenue of the Town Hall will decrease rather materially.” (“Notes of the Week.,” 1896)

Four years later we find the Palmerston Brass Band is using a room provided for them by a Mr. H. Dwyer, of which he was thanked in an annual general meeting (“Palmerston Brass Band.,” 1900).

The Hawthorn City Council found the plight of the Hawthorn City Band more favourable.  In May 1909 it was reported in the Richmond Guardian newspaper that “the patronage of the Hawthorn City Council has been bestowed upon the above band, and a room had been provided for the band to practice in.” (“Hawthorn City Band.,” 1909).  In 1918 however, the Daylesford Brass Band, wishing to reform, found themselves in differing circumstances.  The Secretary of the Daylesford Brass Band sent a letter to the local Borough Council asking if the council could provide a room where the band could practice, a perfectly reasonable request.  It seems that at the time, the band instruments and music from a former iteration of the band were stored in the Town Hall Lodgeroom, and “could the council supply the bandmaster with a key?” (access was needed every so often) (“BAND PRACTICE ROOM WANTED.,” 1918).  Which, unfortunately, touched off a debate within council on why the instruments were in the Town Hall in the first place – not so much the fact that the band wanted a practice room!  However, it also seems that a number of the instrument were in fact owned by the council so they stayed where they were. (“BAND PRACTICE ROOM WANTED.,” 1918).

19451127_Daily-Mercury_Mackay-Larger-Bandroom
Daily Mercury, 27/11/1945, pg. 2

Similar stories of councils deciding when and where bands could rehearse make up a large part of stories around rooms.  The Picton Council could find no objection to having the Picton District Brass Band wanting “free use of the supper room on Monday nights for band practice […] providing they pay for the electric light.” (“Picton Brass Band,” 1931).  However, there were other cases when councils could not, or would not help their local bands locate rooms, and a couple of instances in Queensland involving the Warwick City Band and Mackay City Band Association reflect this (“NO LARGER BANDROOM AVAILABLE,” 1945; Scotia, 1941).

There was obviously a delicate balance involved when trying to find rooms and it seems that dealing with councils formed a major part of negotiations, as councils tended to be the judges of where things were put, and they controlled some of the funding.  Nevertheless, for some bands it all paid off and they were able to practice in rooms provided for them.

Using:

19021121_Nerang-District-BB_V1-FL393716
Portrait of the Nerang & District Brass Band, Queensland, formed in July, 1902. (Courtesy of the State Library of Queensland: 3612)

Once rooms were found or built, bands were free enough to use them as they saw fit although by today’s standards, some of the locations were a bit unusual.  We can see little stories in the articles above where bands rehearsed in fire stations and the like.  This section will highlight where some of the bands rehearsed and some of the problems that were encountered.  The Nerang & District Town Band for example started out rehearsing in the stables of the Nerang Nestle Milk Factory which cannot have been a wholly comfortable experience (Gold Coast City Brass Band, 2014).  Down south in Victoria, the Horsham Brass Band and the Oakleigh District Brass Band found themselves in rooms provided for them by generous supporters, until they found something else (“BAND ROOM.,” 1908; “Oakleigh District Brass Band.,” 1918).  The Kempsey Brass Band from N.S.W. were pleased to report that they were in slightly more appropriate quarters as they found space in the local School of Arts (“KEMPSEY BRASS BAND.,” 1921).  Whilst the Frankston Brass Band in the southern reaches of Melbourne managed to gain space in the local Mechanics’ Institute (“Frankston Brass Band,” 1924).  Out west the Narembeen Brass Band rehearsed “in the old Westralian Farmers Buildings” (“Narembeen Brass Band.,” 1937).

However, like any building, band rooms were not immune to the problems faced by any other building in towns and cities and there were some unfortunate incidents.  In February 1925 it was reported by the Blue Mountain Echo newspaper that the Katoomba District Band room had been broken into twice since Christmas (“Band-room Vandalism,” 1925).  While the damage was easily fixed, some instruments had been shifted and sheet music was strewn about.  The local police believed children were the perpetrators (“Band-room Vandalism,” 1925).

Much more serious was the threat of fire and two bands in the same year suffered the consequences.  In February 1926, fire consumed the room at the back of the Richmond Town Hall which was being used by the Richmond City Band  and unfortunately all band property was presumed lost, and the room and stock were uninsured (“FIRE AT RICHMOND.,” 1926).  This had a detrimental effect on the band and within four years the band had folded – on a side note, two artefacts survived and are now being held by the Richmond & Burnley Historical Society (Langdon, 2014).  Similarly,  in April 1926, fire broke out in the building used by the City Concert Band in Rockhampton however in this incident, all instruments were saved (“FIRE AT ROCKHAMPTON.,” 1926).

To finish off this section and to backtrack a little bit, we have the case of the Collingwood Citizens’ Band and their wanting of space to rehearse.  In early years, as can be seen in the photo at the end of this post, it is rumoured that they used to rehearse in a quarry due to the lack of a room.  There might be some truth to the rumour however they too had to make applications to council for additional places to rehearse, in this case, wanting a park where they could practice their marching – which raised debate on whether this was appropriate on Sunday mornings (“THE SUNDAY QUESTION.,” 1905).

Moving:

19330615_Northern-Star_Bandroom-Removal
Northern Star, 15/06/1933, pg. 5

Yes, it had to happen every so often of which the early bands did the best they could to adapt.  Although at times, it involved the moving of buildings, as detailed in the article above (“BAND-ROOM REMOVAL,” 1933).  And moving buildings was sometimes a condition set upon bands by local councils, as the Albury Brass Band found out when they wanted to move the old fire station to a new site owned by council (“OLD FIRE STATION AS BANDROOM.,” 1916).

Conclusion:

There is obviously much more that could be written about bands finding their own space and place as band room stories are intertwined with the histories of the bands themselves.  Rooms have their own histories.  How often do we see band rooms displaying the history of bands in the form of trophies, photos, shields and other ephemera?  Perhaps it is time we celebrated the rooms in their own right.

19060000_Collingwood-Band-Quarry_phot19034
Collingwood Citizens’ Band rehearsing in a quarry, 1906. (Source: Internet Bandsmen’s Everything Within)

References:

Albert Park Improvements : New Band Stand Opened. (1925, 02 February). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), 8. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155554629

BAND NEWS : Malvern Municipal and Tramways Band. (1930, 07 August). Malvern Standard (Vic. : 1906 – 1931), 8. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66452967

BAND PRACTICE ROOM WANTED. (1918, 18 October). Daylesford Advocate, Yandoit, Glenlyon and Eganstown Chronicle (Vic. : 1914 – 1918), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119561430

BAND ROOM. (1908, 16 June). Horsham Times (Vic. : 1882 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72810141

BAND-ROOM REMOVAL : Building for Practices. (1933, 15 June). Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 – 1954), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article94219810

Band-room Vandalism. (1925, 27 February). Blue Mountain Echo (NSW : 1909 – 1928), 9. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108852760

Bandsman. (1918, 28 March). THE COLLIE BAND ROOM. Collie Mail (Perth, WA : 1908 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article189243021

Collingwood Citizens’ Band rehearsing in a quarry. (1906). [Photograph]. The Internet Bandsman Everything Within, Vintage Brass Band Pictures : Australia. http://www.ibew.org.uk/vinbbp/phot19034.jpg

de Korte, J. D. (2013). Northbrook Stables, South entrance [Photograph].

de Korte, J. D. (2018, 08 July). Instruments, sheet music and uniforms: how the bands of old obtained the essentials. Band Blasts from the Past : Anecdotes, Stories and Personalities. https://bandblastsfromthepast.blog/2018/05/13/instruments-sheet-music-and-uniforms-how-the-bands-of-old-obtained-the-essentials/

de Korte, J. D. (2019, 19 October). Old Orange City Band Hall, 1888 [Photograph].

De La Salle Brothers’ Boys’ School, MALVERN : Blessed and Opened by the Archbishop : His Grace on the Education Question : Fair Play for Catholic Schools. (1912, 06 April). Advocate (Melbourne, Vic. : 1868 – 1954), 22. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article170941033

FIRE AT RICHMOND : Band Hall Destroyed. (1926, 27 February). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), 16. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155771911

FIRE AT ROCKHAMPTON : City Band Instruments Saved. (1926, 13 April). Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933), 15. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article21021996

FOUNDRY BAND-ROOM. (1894, 10 October). Mount Alexander Mail (Vic. : 1854 – 1917), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article198243209

Frankston Brass Band : First Practice on Friday, February 18. (1924, 06 February). Frankston and Somerville Standard (Vic. : 1921 – 1939), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article73498546

Gold Coast City Brass Band. (2014). History : If it happened on the Gold Coast then the Gold Coast City Brass Band was there to help Celebrate the Occasion. Gold Coast City Brass Band. Retrieved 07 August 2020 from http://www.goldcoastcitybrassband.com/history/

Hawthorn City Band. (1909, 22 May). Richmond Guardian (Vic. : 1907 – 1920), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article257211806

Heritage Council Victoria. (1999, 08 September). Malvern Tram Depot : Coldblo Road Armadale, Stonnington City. Heritage Council Victoria. Retrieved 09 August 2020 from https://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/2138

HILLS CENTRAL BRASS BAND. (1912, 19 July). Mount Barker Courier and Onkaparinga and Gumeracha Advertiser (SA : 1880 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article147747963

Jerilderie Shire Council. (1945, 19 April). Jerilderie Herald and Urana Advertiser (NSW : 1898 – 1958), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134629256

Jerilderie Town Band. (n.d.). [Photograph]. The Internet Bandsman Everything Within, Vintage Brass Band Pictures : Australia. http://www.satiche.org.uk/vinbbp/phot6408.jpg

Katanning Brass Band : Proposed Band Room. (1926, 13 February). Great Southern Herald (Katanning, WA : 1901 – 1954), 5. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article147654428

Katanning Brass Band : Opening of new practice room. (1927, 24 January). Southern Districts Advocate (Katanning, WA : 1913 – 1936), 4. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article209839059

KEMPSEY BRASS BAND. (1921, 30 August). Macleay Argus (Kempsey, NSW : 1885 – 1907; 1909 – 1910; 1912 – 1913; 1915 – 1916; 1918 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article234195704

Langdon, D. (2014). Brass bands. Richmond & Burnley Historical Society Newsletter, 31(5), 2 & 4-6.

Mackay, H. (2005, 15 October). A sense of place. The Age. https://www.theage.com.au/national/a-sense-of-place-20051015-ge11sy.html

Millicent Brass Band. (1913). [Photograph (b&w print)]. [MILLICENT: A view of the Millicent brass band, taken on Sunday April 13th, 1913.]. State Library of South Australia, Millicent Collection. https://collections.slsa.sa.gov.au/resource/B+57528

MILLICENT BRASS BAND : Successful Building Appeal : A Generous Patron. (1928, 22 May). Border Watch (Mount Gambier, SA : 1861 – 1954), 1. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article77706076

Narembeen Brass Band. (1937, 11 March). Bruce Rock Post and Corrigin and Narembeen Guardian (WA : 1924 – 1948), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article211359163

NO LARGER BANDROOM AVAILABLE. (1945, 27 November). Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld. : 1906 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article170630099

Notes of the Week. (1896, 04 December). Northern Territory Times and Gazette (Darwin, NT : 1873 – 1927), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3333362

Oakleigh District Brass Band : A Valuable Local Institution. (1918, 16 February). Oakleigh and Caulfield Times Mulgrave and Ferntree Gully Guardian (Vic. : 1914 – 1918), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article88808027

The Old Bandroom : Former Bandmaster in reminiscent mood. (1945, 03 May). Jerilderie Herald and Urana Advertiser (NSW : 1898 – 1958), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134632025

OLD FIRE STATION AS BANDROOM : Removal and tenure of occupancy. (1916, 16 September). Border Morning Mail and Riverina Times (Albury, NSW : 1903 – 1920), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article109967848

OLD MEMORIES NEVER DIE : Further reflections from Collarenebri. (1945, 05 July). Jerilderie Herald and Urana Advertiser (NSW : 1898 – 1958), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134633491

Palmerston Brass Band. (1900, 23 February). Northern Territory Times and Gazette (Darwin, NT : 1873 – 1927), 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4259300

Picton Brass Band : To practice in Town Hall Supper Room. (1931, 14 October). Picton Post (NSW : 1907 – 1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112760838

Portrait of Nerang and District Brass Band, Queensland, formed in July, 1902. (1902). [photographic print : black & white]. Brisbane John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland, South Bank Collection. https://hdl.handle.net/10462/deriv/143348

Scotia. (1941, 20 May). CORRESPONDENCE : Band Practice Room : (To the Editor). Warwick Daily News (Qld. : 1919 -1954), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article189029180

Selten, M., & van der Zandt, F. (2011). Space vs. Place [Wiki Page]. About Geography. http://geography.ruhosting.nl/geography/index.php?title=Space_vs._place

South Melbourne City Band. (1925). South Melbourne City Band : Grand Opening [March card backing]. South Melbourne City Band, South Melbourne, Victoria.

THE SUNDAY QUESTION : Band practice at Collingwood. (1905, 29 August). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article198599129

WARRAGUL BAND : Request for Bandroom Site. (1906, 12 June). West Gippsland Gazette (Warragul, Vic. : 1898 – 1930), 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article68669583

Williams, H. W. (1921). Collie Brass Band, winners of B Grade Championship [Photograph]. [1 negative : acetate, black and white ; 3 x 4 cm.]. State Library of Western Australia, One day in Collie. https://encore.slwa.wa.gov.au/iii/encore/record/C__Rb3507727

Legitimate quirks of instrumentation: The inclusion of woodwinds in brass bands

19000000_Malvern-Tradesmen-Military-Band_phot11448
Malvern Town Military Band, approx. 1900. (Source: IBEW)

Introduction:

Cornets, Flugel Horns, Tenor Horns, Baritones, Euphoniums, Trombones, Tubas and Percussion.  This standard of instrumentation for a brass band has been in place for a good number of years.  Yet before this standard was settled upon, there was an amount of time where the range of instruments was less distinguishable, or available.  The brass band as we know it today is the result of years of evolution with the result being a largely homogenous sound across the ranges.  Composers and arrangers also moved with the time and we can see this in the sheet music.

This post will touch on one of the quirks of instrumentation in earlier brass bands, the use of woodwinds such as Clarinets and Saxophones, and even the odd Piccolo.  For the best part of forty years, some Australian brass bands included woodwind musicians amongst their personnel and allowances were made at some competitions, including the famous South Street.  This did not mean that there was widespread usage or acceptance of woodwinds in the brass bands.  However, there is evidence that some bands used them right up into the 1920s.

Tied into this is the naming of bands.  With the inclusion of woodwinds, some bands were still nominally called brass bands, but others were more inventive with names.  Some bands were sitting on the border of being brass or military in their instrumentation, as we can see with the photo of the Malvern Town Military Band above.

Nowadays the distinction between brass, military and symphonic bands (concert bands) is much clearer cut.  The earlier times was when the boundaries were pushed.

Names and Instrumentation:

A brass band usually means that it is wholly comprised of brass instruments, and then when it included Clarinets, Saxophones and Piccolos it was still called a brass band.  Such was the discrepancy in the names of early bands, a discrepancy that would cause confusion in the minds of modern musicians – today, names of bands generally indicate what kind of instrumentation they include.

The inclusion of Clarinets in a brass band was one of those holdovers from English brass bands.  Arnold Myers (2000), writing in a chapter titled Instruments and Instrumentation of British Brass Bands, explains that,

Often clarinets were used in what were otherwise all-brass groups, a usage which continued throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth, though not in major contests from the 1870s.  The presence of clarinets did not alter the essential nature of the brass band: they replaced one or more Bb cornets, or were used to provide brightness in the upper register in the role usually played by the soprano cornet. (p. 156)

In Australia, trends of instrumentation in brass bands tended to start and end much later than in the UK.  We know that brass bands held a prominent part in many towns, communities and industries across Australia.  We also know that various military bands, bands comprised of a more substantial variety of woodwind instruments, brass and percussion, had been a part of musical life since the early days of the colony.  Although, at times, they needed special explanation, as shown in an article published in the Geelong Advertiser in 1911 (Blakiston, 1911).  Mason (2013) in his thesis, tells us that “military bands provided music military and state functions, as well as performing for the general public and servicing as a source of musicians for cities’ orchestras and other ensembles.” (p. 81).  In their own way, the military bands have their own important history.  The early military bands served as a precursor to the many Defence Force Bands, school concert bands, community concert bands and symphonic bands that fill the musical landscape today (Mason, 2013).

Aside from the number of woodwinds, some commentators attempted to call out the brass bands which included clarinets for trying to be something they were not.  One interesting article was published in the Bairnsdale (Vic.) based Every Week newspaper in May 1918.  Titled “Clarinets in the Brass Band”, the writer used the premise that just because some brass bands included Clarinets (or other woodwinds) in their instrumentation, did not automatically make them a military band – and that they should not attempt to play military band music or arrangements.

Bands which have few clarionets or even bands which have a goodly number of clarionets, but no other reed instruments, make a big mistake when they consider themselves “military bands” and aim to play military band arrangements.  They are really brass bands plus clarionets – a thing very far removed from a military band.(“CLARINETS IN THE BRASS BAND.,” 1918)

Excusing the seemingly blunt language, the writer was correct.  Brass bands that included Clarinets and Saxophones in their line-up were still nominally brass bands, they were not military bands.  Still, the naming of bands is interesting in itself.  Below is a picture of the North Hobart Concert Band taken in 1917.  We can see in the picture that four of the members have Clarinets and one member a Soprano Saxophone.  They also include all of the instruments that comprise a brass band.  If we were to apply the modern name and meaning of a concert band, we would assume it to have a full section of woodwinds.  However, in these early days, this was not the case.  On a side note, we can see that the Bandmaster is one of the members holding a Clarinet.  The Bandmaster in this photo, a Mr. A. W. Caddie, was appointed Bandmaster of the North Hobart Concert Band in 1916 after leading the Zeehan Military Band for a number of years (“NORTH HOBART BAND.,” 1916).  Mr. Caddie was a Clarionetist of some renown and won the Clarionet section at the Royal South Street brass solo competitions in 1912 (Trombone, 1912).

19170000_North-Hobart-Concert-Band_phot3458
North Hobart Concert Band, 1917 (Source: IBEW)

Through this short discussion on instrumentation and naming, it is established that Clarinets and Saxophones existed in brass bands for a number of years and were accepted as such.  It was up to the music publishers to cater for them as well.

Sheet music:

The other side of including limited woodwinds in brass bands is of course the sheet music.  Brass bands that included limited woodwinds may not have had the instrumentation to play arrangements of military music, but they were able to play brass band music with added Clarinet parts – of which the writer of the article in Every Week pointed out (“CLARINETS IN THE BRASS BAND.,” 1918).  Given that the instruments in brass bands are predominantly keyed in Bb or Eb, it was easy enough to create parts for Clarinets and Saxophones as well.  Piccolos used in bands in those days were mostly keyed in Db or Eb which was different.  Parts were included with some editions of music, but this was not always the case.  It is easier to make a comparison between Clarinet and Cornet parts.

Below are two parts of the 1904 march “South Street” by Hall King (edited by T. E. Bulch).  Here we can see clearly that the Clarinet part neatly doubles the Solo Cornet, in parts up the octave (King, 1904a, 1904b).  The range of the Clarinet obviously makes this easy to do, and musically this would make sense. These Clarinet parts would be taken up by an Eb Soprano Cornet in todays brass bands.

19040000_Suttons_South-Street-CL1
(Source: Victorian Bands’ League Library & Archive)
19040000_Suttons_South-Street-SoloC
(Source: Victorian Bands’ League Library & Archive)

Most of the brass band music that was printed in these times originated from large publishing houses in the form of journals, the parts above being published by Suttons Proprietary Limited.  Here we see that this particular journal of brass band music included parts for Reeds, so obviously Clarinets, and possibly Saxophones, were catered for.  Suttons was not the only Australian music publishing company that included parts for Clarinets in their journals of music.  The two march cards below of the marches “Artillery” by Alex Lithgow and “Newtown” by T. E. Bulch were published by Allans & Co. (Bulch, 1901; Lithgow, n.d.).

00000000_Allans_Artillery_2CL
(Source: Victorian Bands’ League Library & Archive)
19010000_Allans_Newtown_2CL
(Source: Victorian Bands’ League Library & Archive)

Obviously, the publishing companies found there was a market for Clarinet, Saxophone and Piccolo parts and composers would have been encouraged to include these parts in their compositions – although, given the similarities in keys, maybe this was up to arrangers.  After having some discussion with Dr. Richard Mason on this topic, extra money for publishers and composers to produce Clarinet parts was assumed (Mason, 2020).  Possibly the real reasons cannot be found, however, the production of specific music to cater for extra instruments added some legitimacy to woodwinds being included in brass bands.

Brass bands with woodwinds:

19060000_Wunghnu-Brass-Band_phot14255
Wunghu Brass Band, 1906 (Source: IBEW)

As mentioned in the opening of this post, Clarinets and other woodwinds were part of brass bands in Australia for around forty years.  We can find some evidence of this from early newspaper articles.  It is claimed that Saxophones were added to brass bands in Australia as early as 1890, although, as mentioned in the linked article, this was a matter of conjecture (“The Saxophone,” 1934).  Other bands were more forthcoming over what they had in their band.  In August 1893, an article regarding the early history of the Dandenong Brass Band was published in the South Bourke and Mornington Journal. It seems that when the Dandenong Brass Band was formed in 1885, it comprised of ten members; three Cornets, two Piccolos, two Tenors, one Baritone and one Clarionet (using this unique spelling) (“DANDENONG BRASS BAND.,” 1893).  Likewise, in 1899, a public meeting was held in Tallangatta with the aim of (re)forming a brass band.  Several participants in the meeting spoke in support, one of them was a Mr A. J. Fortescue,

…speaking as a member, observed that the old band had died through want of proper management and lack of public interest.  If formed on proper lines, with a good committee, he thought a band would prosper there.  There were sufficient of the old brass instruments on hand for a start, but there would be some repairs needed.  There would be wanted a piccolo and two drums.  In reply to a question from the chairman, he stated that with a sum of £20 they could make a fairly good start. (“BRASS BAND FOR TALLANGATTA.,” 1899)

In January 1904 the Linton Brass Band held their annual general meeting, and they were another brass band that boasted a piccolo in their instrumentation.

The band has a stock consisting of one big drum, one side drum, three B flat cornets, two B flat Euphoniums, one E flat bass, one E flat piccolo. (“LINTON BRASS BAND,” 1904)

These were brass bands in their early years.  Yet twenty years later, as can be seen in the list of musicians in the Wagga Wagga Concert Band (below), a Clarinet was part of the ensemble (“WAGGA CONCERT BAND.,” 1921).  And in 1926 the Gnowangerup District Brass Band from Western Australia was proud to announce that they had added a new Clarionet to the band (“Gnowangerup District Brass Band.,” 1926).

19210303_Young-Witness_Wagga-CB_Clarionet
Young Witness, 03/03/1921, pg. 2

There are of course numerous other examples of woodwind instruments appearing in early brass bands of which the above mentioned are a small number of instances.

Competitions:

When in competition, the woodwinds of brass bands were mostly treated the same as any other brass instrument, and they also received the same criticism as well.  There are some examples of woodwinds being mentioned in competition, although this was mainly related to Clarinets and Saxophones.  Even the famous Royal South Street competitions had sections for Clarinets and at times Saxophones over the course of a decade.

The year is 1899 and in September, Northcott’s Bendigo City Brass Band, conducted by Mr. O. Flight, had travelled to Echuca to take part in a small regional competition adjudicated by the famous Mr. E. Code.  The article here details the adjudication of their program and at one point both the Clarinet and Piccolo were mentioned:

Largo – Clarionet and cornets not in tune ; cornet has good taste ; accompaniments too loud ; cornet not clean at bar 17 ; piccolo a little out of tune at bars 18 and 19 ; bass too loud at bar 20. (“NORTHCOTT’S BENDIGO CITY BRASS BAND.,” 1899)

Regarding South Street, they added another layer of legitimacy by having sections specifically for woodwinds included in the brass solo competitions.  As can be seen in the lists of entries (which can be acccessed from the links), the Clarinet & Saxophone sections attracted musicians from all over Australia.  Below is a list of competitions held over ten years (with some gaps), with the woodwind instruments that were included each year:

(Royal South Street Society, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1914, 1915, 1916)

Unfortunately, there are some gaps in the list due to lack of data however, it is known that a brass solo competition was held in 1912 which included a Clarionet section (Trombone, 1912).

As well as the records from Royal South Street, we also have articles in newspapers that provide the adjudication of Clarinettists.  This article published in the Ballarat Star (below) in October 1915 is a prime example of an adjudication.  The adjudicator of this section was the famous Albert Wade (“SOUTH STREET COMPETITIONS.,” 1915).

19151022_Ballarat-Star_Wade-Clarionet
Ballarat Star, 22/10/1915, pg. 6

What of the Saxophonists?  It is seen in the Royal South Street lists that Saxophones were only able to compete in sections for four years.  However, other opportunities for them to integrate with bands were limited to military bands.  That does not mean they were completely forgotten.  In a forward thinking move, Saxophones were provided their own section in a “novelty” event at the Interstate Band Contest in Perth, February 1931 (“SAXOPHONE COMPETITION,” 1931).  The reasoning was understandable at the time.

Hitherto the saxophone has not been considered to be a true brass band instrument, and therefore ineligible for registration under the W.A. Band Association contest rules.  The contest committee, however, obtained permission from the association to include the competition in its program, and fourteen entries have been received.  There are a number of capable executants among the entrants, and as the choice of the solo is left to the competitor, a varied range of saxophone music may be reasonably anticipated. (“SAXOPHONE COMPETITION,” 1931)

The recognition by competition societies that woodwinds had a place in their own sections was well-meaning and forward thinking.  It goes to show that while they were brass band centric, all instruments of the brass band were included, even if they were not strictly brass.

Conclusion:

19100000_Brisbane-Concert-Band_phot8024
Brisbane Concert Band, 1910 (Source: IBEW)

The thought of woodwinds in brass bands would probably raise the eyebrows of many brass band purists. Yet, like many other stories of the brass band world, it is one that is worth exploring, if only for the novelty.  One wonders how these early brass bands would have sounded with limited woodwinds playing similar parts.  The history and sheet music tell us that woodwinds existed in brass bands.  As do some of the pictures, like the Brisbane Concert Band above.

References:

Blakiston, C. (1911, 22 April). A MILITARY BAND : How it is made up. Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 – 1929), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article149205289

BRASS BAND FOR TALLANGATTA. (1899, 18 February). Ovens and Murray Advertiser (Beechworth, Vic. : 1855 – 1918), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article199465362

Bulch, T. E. (1901). “Newtown” (2nd Clarionet Bb) : (Dedicated to Thos. Mellor Esq. Bandmaster). [March Card]. Melbourne, Victoria: Allans & Co.

CLARINETS IN THE BRASS BAND. (1918, 09 May). Every Week (Bairnsdale, Vic. : 1914 – 1918), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article153439388

Colouhoun, J. (1900). Malvern Town Military Band. The Internet Bandsman: Vintage Brass Band Pictures: Australia [Photograph]. Retreived from http://www.ibew.org.uk/vbbp-oz.htm

DANDENONG BRASS BAND. (1893, 02 August). South Bourke and Mornington Journal (Richmond, Vic. : 1877 – 1920; 1926 – 1927), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70015776

Gnowangerup District Brass Band. (1926, 10 July). Gnowangerup Star and Tambellup-Ongerup Gazette (WA : 1915 – 1944), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158909246

King, H. (1904). “South Street” (1st Clarionet). [March Card]. Melbourne-Ballarat-Bendigo-Geelong: Suttons Proprietary Limited.

King, H. (1904). “South Street” (Solo Cornet). [March Card]. Melbourne-Ballarat-Bendigo-Geelong: Suttons Proprietary Limited.

LINTON BRASS BAND. (1904, 13 January). Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 – 1924), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210140838

Lithgow, A. F. (n.d.). “Artillery” (2nd Clarionet). [March Card]. Melbourne, Victoria: Allans & Co.

Mason, R. W. (2013). The clarinet and its protagonists in the Australian New Music milieu from 1972 to 2007. (Doctor of Philosophy Thesis). Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, Faculty of VCA & MCM, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11343/38294 Available from Minerva Access (38294)

Mason, R. W. (2020, 14 June) Phone call with Dr Richard Mason regarding the use of Clarinets in brass bands/Interviewer: J. D. de Korte.

Myers, A. (2000). Instruments and Instrumentation of British Brass Bands. In T. Herbert (Ed.), The British brass band : a musical and social history (pp. 155-186). Oxford: Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press.

NORTH HOBART BAND : New Bandmaster Welcomed. (1916, 05 September). Daily Post (Hobart, Tas. : 1908 – 1918), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article191143234

North Hobart Concert Band. (1917). The Internet Bandsman: Vintage Brass Band Pictures: Australia [Photograph]. Retreived from http://www.ibew.org.uk/vbbp-oz.htm

NORTHCOTT’S BENDIGO CITY BRASS BAND : Conductor – Mr O. Flight. (1899, 22 September). Riverine Herald (Echuca, Vic. : Moama, NSW : 1869 – 1954; 1998 – 2002), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115017023

Royal South Street Society. (1906, 30 October). 1906-10-30 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1906-10-30-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1907, 22 October). 1907-10-22 Brass Section. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1907-10-22-brass-section

Royal South Street Society. (1908, 20 October). 1908-10-20 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1908-10-20-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1910, 18 October). 1910-10-18 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1910-10-18-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1911, 24 October). 1911-10-24 Brass Band Solos. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1911-10-24-brass-band-solos

Royal South Street Society. (1914, 20 October). 1914-10-20 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1914-10-20-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1915, 21 October). 1915-10-21 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1915-10-21-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1916, 30 October). 1916-10-30 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1916-10-30-brass-solo-contests

The Saxophone : Who Brought it to Australia. (1934, 06 January). Voice (Hobart, Tas. : 1931 – 1953), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article218832762

SAXOPHONE COMPETITION : Interstate Band Contest. (1931, 02 January). Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 – 1950), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83492508

SOUTH STREET COMPETITIONS : Brass Section Continued : Mr A. Wade, Adjudicator : Clarionet Solo. (1915, 22 October). Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 – 1924), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article154562484

Trombone. (1912, 29 October). BANDS AND BANDSMEN. Daily Post (Hobart, Tas. : 1908 – 1918), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article189103747

WAGGA CONCERT BAND. (1921, 03 March). Young Witness (NSW : 1915 – 1923), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113606153

Wunghnu Brass Band. (1906). The Internet Bandsman: Vintage Brass Band Pictures: Australia [Photograph]. Retreived from http://www.ibew.org.uk/vbbp-oz.htm

 

The poetry of brass bands

Introduction:

While undertaking research for my blog posts thus far I have come across all manner of writing describing brass bands, their members and competitions.  Much of the writing is very useful in finding the “little stories” behind people, places and events.  Occasionally I have come across some oddities in the mix and this post is going to highlight an aspect of writing; poetry.

In this context of brass band history, penning up a poem about musicians, bands and competitions might seem very colloquial.  And in some respects, it is.  One only has to look at the style of writing and while the poems might not have won any literature awards, they were helpful in bringing to life some little stories in a unique style.

Below are just three of these brass band poems.  I have not been actively searching for these.  However, if while searching for material on other topics and they appeared, I have made a note of them for the novelty.  These are defiantly the needles in haystacks!  Two of the poems were published in local newspapers by writers using pseudonyms while the third poem was composed by brass band writer C. C. Mullen in his rare book, Mullen’s Bandsmen of South Street (1900 – 1951).

I am quite sure there are other brass band poems in other newspaper articles so this post might be expanded in the future.  Please enjoy the language and stories that are being told here and remember that they were for another time.  Perhaps this blend of artforms might be used again one day.

“A Welcome” by ‘Bannerman’ (1918):

19201023_Herald_Bandsmens-Gossip
Herald, 23/10/1920, p. 4

One of the first blog posts in Band Blasts from The Past was about the famous Cornetist and Conductor William Ryder who travelled to Australia in 1910 with the renowned Besses O’ Th’ Barn Band (de Korte, 2018).  Just eight years later, after stints with bands in Victoria and New South Wales, he arrived in Maryborough, Queensland to take the reins of the Maryborough Naval Band and we found that an enterprising contributor, under the pseudonym of ‘Bannerman’, had penned a poem to welcome him to town.  No doubt this would have been perceived as a very friendly gesture, and it gave the town some insight into the prowess and reputation of Ryder as a musician.  This poem was published in the Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser on Wednesday, 8thMay, 1918.

A WELCOME

Here’s a hearty welcome “Billy”,
To our pleasant country town,
And may Fortune every lead you,
And misfortune never frown.
We are pleased to have you with us,
And we hope you long may stay
To encourage local talent
In the latest style and way.

When you played the “solo cornet”
With the finest in the land,
You were classed as England’s champion
In the famous “Besses Band.”
And here in fair Australia
You can show us all the way
As the Champion of the Champions
From the South to old Wide Bay.

“Because” we all remember
When you played it at New Year,
When the silvery notes were finished
How the crowd did clap and cheer.
May our town and climate suit you,
May your notes prove ever true.
Here’s good-luck to wife and kiddies,
And long life and health to you.
(Bannerman, 1918, p. 6)

“Back to South Street” by Cecil Clarence Mullen (1951):

There is one brass band musician and writer among many who is significant to early Victorian brass band history, Cecil Clarence Mullen (C. C. Mullen).  His writing might be rare and hard to find now, however, being a band journal representative he had a unique insight into the workings of brass bands and was associated with many famous bands, conductors and administrators (Mullen, 1951).

It is in his little book, Mullen’s Bandsmen of South Street (1900 – 1951) that we find his poem, “Back to South Street”. In this piece of writing Mullen has cleverly highlighted the nostalgia of the South Street event while noting many of the famous names of bands and bandsmen.  It is a worthwhile poem to read for the sake of history.

19510000_Mullen
Source: Jeremy de Korte Personal Collection

BACK TO SOUTH STREET

Just let me go back to South Street
For a week with the famous bands,
And take with me others who would compete
In Australia’s Golden City of renown.

Just let me alight at the station
With cornet, trombone and drum,
And meet bandsmen from all over the Nation,
To whom South Street once more come.

Just let me line up in the station yard
And play through Handel’s “Hallelujah Chorus,”
Or “The Heavens Are Telling” by Haydn – just as hard,
As bands played in the days before us.

Just let me march along Sturt Street
With gay crowds lining the way,
With step by step and beat by beat,
Is South Street just the same to-day?

Just let me see who is judging again,
Is it Stead or Bentley with ears for tune?
Short, Beswick, Sutton or Morgan – men of fame,
Or King of them all – J. Ord Hume.

Just let me go through Inspection
As we did when we dressed with much care;
With the gayest uniform in our section,
That made all our rivals stare.

Just let me compete in the solos again
From the grand old Coliseum stage,
With “Adelaide” or “Gipsy’s Warning” – or “Pretty Jane,”
“Zelda” and “Miranda” of a later age.

Just let me mount he platform
And play through “Beethoven’s Works.”
Or any Alexander Owen’s selections
That South Street bands would not shirk.

Just let me play through the Test piece,
Be it “Mercandante.” “Mozart” or “Liszt,”
“Wagner,” “Chopin” of “Meyerbeer,”
The tests that were tests on our lips.

Just let me march in the Quickstep
With Ord Hume’s “B.B. and C.F.”
“The Challenge,” “Cossack” or “Ravenswood”
Or was the “Twentieth Century” the best?

Just let me see the others swing past,
Code’s, Prout’s, Rozelle and Boulder.
Wanganui, Newcastle and Bathurst Brass,
Great names that come dear to the older.

Just let me see those fine Geelong bands,
St. Augustine’s, Municipal and Harbour Trust.
Also Collingwood, Malvern, Richmond, Prahran,
Perth City – all great power among us.

Just let me see Geelong Town again
With Sharpe Brearley at the head of affairs.
They ranked with Prout’s in quickstep fame,
First in marching honours was often theirs.

Just let me see the giants of the baton,
Riley, Code, Bulch and Prout,
McMahon, Barkel, Jones and Hoffman.
Many, alas, have gone out.

Just let me see others again,
Partington, Shugg, Johnston, Bowden.
Men who kept time in South Street’s fame;
Wade and Baile must be among them.

Just let me think if I missed any,
Yes, there was Davison, Niven, Lewins – any more!
Hopkins, Ryder, Billy May among many,
Not forgetting Frank Wright and J. Booth Gore.

Just let me see the best of officials
And critics like Davey, Gartrell and Hellings,
Humphreys and Boyce – Kings of staff and whistle,
May march us again – well, there’s no telling.

So to-day just let me go back to South Street,
Most famous contest in the land,
Where many old timers I will heartily greet,
And yarn over years that were so grand.
(Mullen, 1951, pp. 2-3)

“Dungog Brass Band” by ‘Mad Mick” (1954):

19120000_Dungog-BB_phot16862
Dungog Brass Band, 1912 (Source: IBEW)

Above is a picture of the Dungog Brass Band from around 1912 and unfortunately, this is one of the only pictures I could find of them.  However, some thirty years later this prose was published in the Dungog Chronicle : Dungog and Gloucester Advertiserby a member of the band writing under the pseudonym of ‘Mad Mick”.  One may wince at some of the language, but this was the 1950’s!

From reading the poem it appears that ‘Mick’ is a third cornet player.  This poem is quite good in describing who the band is, what it does and where it goes, but the prose hints at some problems like attendance issues.  We can appreciate that this was a local town band, and this was the way they did things. I think every band has a ‘Mick’ in their midst and we can thank him for highlighting the Dungog Brass Band in the way that he did.

DUNGOG BRASS BAND

I’ve heard it said that Old King Cole was happy, gay and free,
And he liked music sweet and low, played by his fiddlers three,
But in Dungog we’re luckier than King Cole in his day,
We have a band of 25 with band-master, Bob Gray;
And of this band we all feel proud, a mighty job they do,
They play in aid of charities, and spastic kiddies too.
Some Saturdays they entertain at each and every pub,
They finish off the evening playing at the Bowling Club.

Now I would like to tell you all the names of those who play,
And how old Bob the baton waves, and gets them on their way;
Soprano cornet heads the list and that’s I. Kennedy.
That solo cornet it is played by little Johnny Lee;
Keith Kennedy is downstairs for he is baritone,
And forwards, backwards, goes Stan Leayr upon the old trombone;
Now solo tenor horn Barry Schofield plays alone,
Toot! Toot! Toot! Toot! Don Redman goes upon his saxophone.

First tenor horn’s Wal Arnold, third cornet Mick Neilson,
Johnny Schofield’s second cornet, Hector Robson the side drum;
Ken Wade with his euphonium, gets down to bottom D,
While second solo tenor horn is little Barry Lee;
Then there’s E bass Freddy Schofield and Ted Mathews is the same,
And there’s one more solo cornet, Artie Redman is his name;
The secretary is Jack Kerr, he’s also big bass drum,
While tenor horn number three is played by “Butch” Neilson.

There’s only six more instruments and players for to pen,
For to conclude the roll call of Bob and his merry men;
And Bob calls them “some-timers,” they don’t attend a lot,
Sometimes they’re there for practice and sometimes they are not.
There’s the E bass and the B bass, and repiano cornet too,
And they’re played by Tommy Ferris and Keith Lean and Shelton, Blue,
Well now I’ve two trombonists whose attendances are poor
And they are “Sambo” Neilson and offsider Dennis Moore.

Well, those are all the players who go to make this band,
But there are two more people who lend a helping hand;
First of them the Drum Major, he makes them look so fine,
And that of course is Perry, Bill, he sees they march in line.
Then last of all is Paddy with collection box in hand,
You’ll always find him snooping round somewhere behind the band,
He sticks his box beneath your nose and thinks he’s doing right.
No wonder folks have christened him the “great Australian bite!”
P.S. – Sorry folks I missed one out, it’s Ray Monaghan I’m sure,
He plays quite well, but still in all, attendances are poor.
(Mad Mick, 1954, p. 3)

…and something from me:

In concluding this next blog post in Band Blasts From the Past,
Some tales of bands and bands people, but they won’t be the last.
For as we know from history, stories wait until they’re found,
Of the many tales of bands people who were there to make a sound.

References:

Bannerman. (1918, 08 May). A WELCOME. Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1860 – 1947), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article151083205

de Korte, J. D. (2018, 02 March). William Ryder: The first conductor of the Prahran & Malvern Tramways Employees Band. Blog post Retrieved from https://bandblastsfromthepast.blog/2018/03/02/william-ryder-the-first-conductor-of-the-prahran-malvern-tramways-employees-band/

Dungog Brass Band. (1912). The Internet Bandsman: Vintage Brass Band Pictures: Australia [Photograph]: Retrieved from http://www.ibew.org.uk/vinbbp/phot16862.jpg.

Mad Mick. (1954, 29 September). DUNGOG BRASS BAND (By ‘Mad Mick). Dungog Chronicle : Durham and Gloucester Advertiser (NSW : 1894 – 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article140539879

Mullen, C. C. (1951). Mullen’s Bandsmen of South Street (1900-1951). Melbourne, Vic.: Horticultural Press.

Quickstep. (1920, 23 October). Bandsmen’s Gossip : Celebrated Conductor. Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article242245731

 

Trans-Tasman connections: the lure of competition and performance. Part Two – Australian Bands in New Zealand.

Introduction:

In comparison to the first part of this series of posts, the Australian bands were not quite as proactive as crossing the Tasman as their New Zealand counterparts.  This being said, when the Australian bands did go to New Zealand, they tended to do very well in competition and performances gained rave reviews.  This part of the post will detail the trips that four Australian bands made to New Zealand between 1900-1940.

1907: Newcastle City Band – Christchurch International Exhibition Contest:

19070213_New-Zealand-Mail_Newcastle-Picture
1907, Newcastle City Band visiting New Zealand. New Zealand Mail, 13/02/1907 (Source: PapersPast)

It took a little bit longer for Australian bands to start reciprocal visits to New Zealand and in 1907 the then champion Newcastle City Band traveled to Christchurch via Wellington to participate in the International Exhibition Contest (“NEWCASTLE CITY BAND.,” 1907).  By all accounts, this was a huge event with no less than twenty-nine bands participating (Newcomb, 1980).  Also in attendance at the Exhibition was the world-famous Besses O’ Th’ Barn Band from England who performed to great acclaim (Newcomb, 1980).  Code’s Melbourne band was also intending to take part in the event however they did not end up going due to some of their bandsmen being unable to take time off work (Trombone, 1907).

 The Newcastle Band achieved a very credible third placing against some top-ranking New Zealand bands and some of their soloists also achieved good placings (“BAND CONTEST,” 1907).  However, soon after the contest finished, questions were being asked over the judging with Newcastle and others feeling that Newcastle should have been placed higher.  In an article published in the Wanganui Herald, a Mr. Edgar Nicholas from Ballarat who was visiting was asked about the adjudicating at the contest by Lieutenant Bentley, formerly of England.  Mr. Nicholas said in his interview that,

I have been at all the band contests in Ballarat, where the principal bands in Australia compete.  We had had Messrs Ord-Hume, Wade, and Beard from England, but, speaking generally, Mr. Bentley has given equal satisfaction in Ballarat with these gentlemen”. (“THE JUDGING AT THE CONTEST,” 1907)

Speaking pragmatically in the interview, Mr. Nicholas noted that an adjudicator sometimes fails to please everyone given that Mr. Bentley had to judge 30 bands.  Also, as Mr. Nicholas suggests, some bands may not have been at their best given the late hours that some of them competed (“THE JUDGING AT THE CONTEST,” 1907).  Mr. Nicholas kept drawing comparisons with the Ballarat South St. Eisteddfod, the first being that that in the case of large sections, Ballarat employed up to three judges and that in Australia there were separate gradings which, at the time, were not used in New Zealand (“THE JUDGING AT THE CONTEST,” 1907).

One Newcastle bandmember was quite firm in his comments which were published in a Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate article by saying,

When our band-master tells us we played well I am satisfied.  He tells us often enough when we don’t play well; but we never played better than in the competition.” (“THE CITY BAND.,” 1907).

Aside from this issue over the placings, most accounts note that the Newcastle City Band had an enjoyable trip and were welcomed in various locations.  On the ship home, they played for an appreciative audience and were welcomed home with a civic reception (“THE CITY BAND.,” 1907).

Band: Own Choice: Test: Total:
Wanganui Garrison 158 147 305
Kaikorai Brass 158 145 303
Newcastle City (Aust.) 156 146 302

(Source of table data: (Newcomb, 1980, pg. 40)

1923: Redfern Municipal Band – South Island Brass Band Association Contest, Dunedin:

Some sixteen years after the first Australian band traveled to New Zealand, it took until 1923 for the next Australian band to arrive.  The Redfern Municipal Band, conducted by Mr. W. Partington, was a formidable band at the time and they undertook a short tour through the South Island of New Zealand on their way from Wellington to Dunedin.  Upon arriving in Wellington, along with a contingent of N.S.W. Bowlers, they were given a large civic reception by the Mayor (“BOWLERS AND BANDSMEN,” 1923).  The arrival of Redfern had generated an amount of excitement throughout New Zealand, suffice to say that their conductor Mr. W. Partington had conducted one of their own champion bands, The Wanganui Garrison Band for a while (“ENTERPRISING BAND,” 1923; Newcomb, 1980) – the band from Redfern was not unknown in New Zealand.

Redfern Municipal was ultimately triumphant in Dunedin by winning the A Grade section and Aggregate.  This was no easy feat given that a number of New Zealand’s A grade bands were in the section, including Mr. Partington’s former band, Wanganui.  Newcomb (1980) wrote of Redfern and the A Grade contest,

In Dunedin, it competed against seven of New Zealand’s top A grade bands.  After a week of intensive rehearsal in the “Edinburgh of the South” Redfern was rewarded for its painstaking efforts when it took out the A grade title 12 points ahead of Invercargill’s Hiberian Band. The 1st Canterbury Mounted Regiment Band was third.

The talking point of the contest was the poor performance of the Wanganui Garrison Band, under Mr. J. Crichton.  The veteran Wanganui conductor’s ambition was to thrash the Redferners…” (p. 44)

Of course the triumph was noted in Australian and New Zealand newspapers, and rightly so, it was a great win for the Redfern band (“BAND CONTEST,” 1923; “REDFERN BAND,” 1923).  However, the backstory of the two conductors was intriguing and written up as part of an article published by the NZ Truth newspaper:

There is an interesting story (perhaps) behind the crossing of the Redferners.  Bandmaster Partington was over here for a while, and had charge of the Wanganui Band.  Within a very short period of training under his baton he made champions of them, winning the N.Z. honors last year.  Then there arose a controversy between Partington, of Aussieland and Jim Crichton, of Wanganui, the ex-bootshopman who knocked off trade to become a musician, undergoing a special course of study in London for the purpose of pursuing his brass-bound hobby.  He told P. that if he (C.) had the Woolston Band under his baton for a month he could beat anything that P. could bring against it.  There was such a heated argument that it was leading to something like a £1000 wager.  But P. left for Aussieland again, and took charge of the Redferners.  Now the question is: Did he bring the Sydneysiders over to compete against anything that Jim Crichton had under his wing? Well, Jim took the Wanganui cracks down to Dunedin to play against their old leader – and Wanganui was nowhere in the final! (“Brass Bands and Bandsmen,” 1923).

When returning to Australia, there was a snippet of thought that the Redfern Band might head to England to compete (“REDFERN BAND,” 1923).  However, this evidently did not eventuate.  Their conductor, Mr. Partington, went on to other activities and formed a representative band that travelled Australia with the aim of heading to England.  But as detailed in a previous post, that tour ended up running out of money upon arrival in Perth.

1925: Malvern Tramways Band – New Zealand National Band Championship, Auckland:

19250305_Auckland-Weekly-News_MalvernTB_
Malvern Tramways Band, Auckland. Auckland Weekly News, 02/03/1925, p. 46. (Source: Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections: AWNS-19250305-46-1)

Just two years later, another crack Australian band made the trip to New Zealand to compete.  The Malvern Tramways Band was renowned throughout Australia as one of the elite bands of the Commonwealth having won numerous competitions by this time.  So much so that the Malvern Band, like many others, tried to get to England however they too were unable to raise sufficient funds.  To compensate, they did arrive in New Zealand early in 1925 to commence a six-week tour culminating in the championships in Auckland (“Malvern Tramways Band,” 1925d).

The reputation of Malvern preceded them to New Zealand and all manner of hospitality was afforded for the band including, special observation cars on trains, reduced rail fares and free travel on New Zealand trams! (“MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND,” 1925b).  They sailed from Melbourne to Invercargill and from there travelled up to Auckland giving concerts in all the major towns on the way (“MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND,” 1925a).  By late February they had reached Auckland and commenced competing in the band sections and solo sections.  In competition, the Malvern Tramways band was formidable and they won just about every section except for the Quickstep where they achieved third place (“MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND.,” 1925b; “MALVERN WINS A GRADE TEST,” 1925).  Newcomb (1980) wrote of the contest:

After many years of bickering, common sense prevailed when the North and South Island associations joined forces to stage the 1925 national contest in Auckland.

It was made doubly interesting by the presence of the Malvern Tramways Band from Australia under the conductorship of Mr. Harry Shugg.

New Zealand’s top A grade bands proved no match for the highly fancied Australian combination which won both tests, the hymn and the championship aggregate. (p. 45).

After this astounding success in New Zealand, the Malvern Tramways Band sailed for Sydney where they performed their competition repertoire in concert to rave reviews (“MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND,” 1925c).  Traveling back to Melbourne, the success of their New Zealand venture was written up a couple of months later by the local Prahran Telegraph newspaper (“MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND.,” 1925a).

1936: Cairns Citizens’ Band – New Zealand National Band Championships, New Plymouth:

19351123_Evening-Post_Cairns-Band
Cairns Citizens’ (31st Battalion) Band. Evening Post, 23/11/1935. (Source: PapersPast)

In October 1935, the Cairns Post newspaper published the news that the Cairns Citizens’ (31st Battalion) Band would compete at the 1936 New Zealand Band Championships in New Plymouth (“MAKING HISTORY.,” 1935).  Conducted by James Crompton, a person that was not unfamiliar to the New Zealand brass bands, the band was nominally the first band from Queensland to compete in New Zealand and the first from Australian Military Forces (“MAKING HISTORY.,” 1935).

The Cairns Citizens’ Band won the New Zealand Championship that year, although they did not win the Test selection.  However, their aggregate points were enough that they could win the championship (“Cairns Band.,” 1936; Newcomb, 1980).  The New Zealand press was also impressed by the standards set in New Plymouth and an article published in the Evening Post newspaper praised the marching – the Cairns Citizens’ Band achieved 2nd place in the marching section (“GOOD MARCHING,” 1936).

Conclusion:

There was a similarity of experiences for bands crossing to either side of the Tasman; with civic receptions, a very interested and informed public and commentary from the newspapers.  The excitement generated by viewing a visiting band was also interesting to note – and there were plenty of other articles that were written about bands (but too many to list in these posts)!  It was interesting to note just how close the Australian and New Zealand brass band movements were in terms of standards and rules, so much so that any band crossing the Tasman could expect near similar conditions of competition.  The best bands of each country could match the other and in the spirit of competition, this was plain to see.

It is the collegial nature of band movements that enabled these visits to happen and to this day, the friendly rivalries remain, and visits continue to take place.  Kudos to the bands that made these early trips as they set a foundation for other bands to build on.

<- Part One – New Zealand Bands in Australia

References:

Auckland Weekly News. (1925). AUSTRALIAN BAND’S SWEEPING SUCCESS : MALVERN TRAMWYS (MELBOURNE), WINNERS OF ALL THE A GRADE SHIELDS AND THE McLED CUP. Auckland Council – Te Kaunhera o Tâmaki Makaurau : Auckland Libraries – Ngā Pātaka Kōrero o Tâmaki Makaurau : Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections [Digital Image AWNS-19250305-46-1]. Retreived from http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?BU=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aucklandcity.govt.nz%2Fdbtw-wpd%2FHeritageImages%2Findex.htm&AC=QBE_QUERY&TN=heritageimages&QF0=ID&NP=2&MR=5&RF=HIORecordSearch&QI0=%3D%22AWNS-19250305-46-1%22: Auckland Weekly News.

AUSTRALIAN BAND FOR NEW ZEALAND CONTEST. (1935, 23 November). Illustrated. Evening Post (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19351123.2.26.1

BAND CONTEST : Redfern Win The Aggregate : Wellington Watersiders Third. (1923, 24 February). Evening Post (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19230224.2.68

BAND CONTEST : Winners of Competitions. (1907, 16 February). New Zealand Times (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NZTIM19070216.2.61

BOWLERS AND BANDSMEN. (1923, 08 February). Evening Post (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19230208.2.25

Brass Bands and Bandsmen. (1923, 03 March). NZ Truth (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NZTR19230303.2.2.4

Cairns Band : Wins Championship. (1936, 02 March). Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld. : 1906 – 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article172909750

THE CITY BAND. (1907, 27 February). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136605589

ENTERPRISING BAND : Sydney Competition Band Likely to Visit Wanganui. (1923, 12 January). Hawera & Normanby Star (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/HNS19230112.2.17

GOOD MARCHING : Port Nicholson Band : Recent National Contest. (1936, 09 March). Evening Post (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19360309.2.25

THE JUDGING AT THE CONTEST. (1907, 15 February). Wanganui Herald (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/WH19070215.2.32

MAKING HISTORY : Band For New Zeaand : Cairns to Cross Tasman. (1935, 02 October). Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 – 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article41708070

MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND. (1925a, 20 February). New Zealand Herald. Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NZH19250220.2.132

MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND. (1925b, 20 January). Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article243874312

MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND. (1925c, 10 March). Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16207234

Malvern Tramways Band : Leaves for New Zealand. (1925d, 13 February). Prahran Telegraph (Vic. : 1889 – 1930), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165132427

MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND : Recent New Zealand Tour. Success in Competitions. (1925a, 22 May). Prahran Telegraph (Vic. : 1889 – 1930), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165141099

MALVERN TRAMWAYS BAND : Wins Championship of New Zealand. (1925b, 06 March). Prahran Telegraph (Vic. : 1889 – 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165137387

MALVERN WINS A GRADE TEST. (1925, 27 February). Evening Post (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19250227.2.83.1

New Zealand International Exhibition. (1907, 12 February). Advertisement. Star (N.Z.), p. 3. Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/TS19070212.2.57.2

The Newcastle (N.S.W.) City Brass Band; Champion Band of Australia, At Present Visiting New Zealand. (1907, 13 February). New Zealand Mail. Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NZMAIL19070213.2.235.6

NEWCASTLE CITY BAND : Going to New Zealand. (1907, 29 January). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136608558

Newcomb, S. P. (1980). Challenging brass : 100 years of brass band contests in New Zealand, 1880-1980. Takapuna, N.Z.: Powerbrass Music for the Brass Band Association of New Zealand.

REDFERN BAND : New Zealand Triumph. (1923, 09 March). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 – 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118834570

Trombone. (1907, 09 February). The Exhibition : The Band Contests. Lyttelton Times (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/LT19070209.2.71

 

Trans-Tasman connections: the lure of competition and performance. Part One – New Zealand Bands in Australia.

GLNZ Series
Wanganui Garrison Band being welcomed in Melbourne. Auckland Weekly News, 10/11/1910. (Source: Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections: AWNS-19101110-4-5)

Introduction:

It would be fair to say that the relationship between Australia and New Zealand, as countries and peoples, has been one of mutual respect, partnership, shared development, and healthy competitiveness.  This has been evident in many instances and has also been evident in the brass band movement.  So much so that over the years from just before 1900 up to 1950, bands regularly crossed the Tasman Sea with the aim of touring, performance, and participating in respective championships.

Travel was not always an easy task and was certainly expensive.  Yet in these early days of ships and trains, bands managed this and for the most part, were met with civic welcomes and hospitality wherever they went.  There were also times when eminent bandsmen also traveled to ply their services as adjudicators, conductors or band coaches.  This allowed a flow of new ideas, expertise and criticism that certainly helped the band movements of both countries.

As far as the information allows it, we will see who went where and when.  It has been interesting to read the perspectives of media from both Australia and New Zealand through using the resources of the Trove archive and DigitalNZ / PapersPast – media of the day reported on everything!  Also, the results database of the Royal South Street Society, the Brass Band Results website (UK) and history books regarding the band history of New Zealand have been very helpful.

For the sake of brevity, this post has been divided into two parts and the details of visits are in basic chronological order.  Part one is about the bands from New Zealand that traveled to Australia and part two highlights four of the Australian bands that went to New Zealand.  There are some fascinating stories to come out of these trips and one can appreciate the initiative.  I hope people enjoy reading both posts.

1897-1899: Invercargill Garrison Band, Oamaru Garrison Band & Wellington Garrison Band – Melbourne & Bathurst:

18980412_Bendigo-Independent_Oamaru-Band-Melbourne
Bendigo Independent, 12/04/1898, p. 3

In the few years preceding 1900, Australia received visits from three New Zealand bands in relatively quick succession; the Invercargill Garrison Band in 1897, the Oamaru Garrison band in 1898 and the Wellington Garrison Band in 1899 (Newcomb, 1980).  In 1897 the Invercargill Garrison Band visited Melbourne to compete in the Druid’s Gala Contest in Melbourne and gained a credible forth placing out of the eleven bands that competed (“VICTORIA.,” 1897).  The next year, and in the same contest, the Oamaru Garrison Band visited and was higher placed although there’s some historical conjecture over the scores with an article in the Bendigo Independent newspaper reporting a tied third place other reports saying they achieved second placings in some sections (“THE BAND CONTEST.,” 1898; Newcomb, 1980).

Coming into 1899, the Wellington Garrison Band sailed to Australia and after a brief stop in Sydney, they traveled to Bathurst to compete in the Intercolonial Band Contest.  They immediately set the tone of their visit and marched from the railway station to the hotel followed by enthusiastic crowds (“The Wellington Garrison Band.,” 1899).  However, despite being a champion New Zealand band, they were brought undone in Bathurst by the deportment of their bandsmen.  It was widely reported in New Zealand and Australian press that the reason they lost points in the marching was because of  “nine of the bandsmen being unshaved” (“UNSHAVEN BANDSMEN,” 1899).  Apparently Wellington band “forgot” the regulations on shaving and were subsequently placed fifth in the marching even though their playing matched the Code’s Melbourne Band (“Bathurst Band Contest.,” 1899).  This being said, they redeemed themselves by winning the bulk of the solo contests in Bathurst (“BAND CONTEST.,” 1899).

1908 & 1921: Kaikorai Band – South Street Eisteddfod, Ballarat:

19080114_Colonist_Kaikorai-Band-Announcement
Colonist, 14/01/1908, p. 3

Early in 1908, a tiny snippet of news was printed by newspapers across New Zealand; the Kaikorai Band from Dunedin was intending to compete at the Ballarat South Street Eisteddfod in October – as seen here in this advertisement published by the Colonist newspaper (“Kaikorai Band,” 1908).  The Kaikorai band was another one of New Zealand’s top bands at the time and obviously felt that they could take on the best of Australian brass bands (Newcomb, 1980). However, things did not go quite to plan on the day and Newcomb (1980) outlined one the main reasons:

Everything went wrong after one of the band’s top soloists, Billy Flea, cracked his lip.  The Flugel Horn solo had to be taken by Jim Pearson.  Though Billy was a strong player, Jim was the reverse.  As a result, another soloist, who was in the habit of relying on the finish of the Flugel solo to dovetail his entry, simply didn’t hear Jim, so never got started!

Conductor Laidlaw was so taken aback that his baton simply froze.  Some of the bandsmen maintained that the Scots conductor turned a shade of green! It was to his credit, however, that after the initial shock he pulled the band together. (p. 40)

This, of course, was reflected in the comments on their playing, an account that was published in the Otago Witness newspaper (“Kaikorai Band at Ballarat,” 1908). However, the Kaikorai Band did achieve one triumph when they won the discipline prize for their marching.

(Royal South Street Society, 1908a, 1908b)

In 1921 the Kaikorai Band returned to South Street to compete, however on this occasion they did not go as well as Australian bands had developed quite a bit in preceding years and Kaikorai was no match for them (Newcomb, 1980).  The only success on this occasion occurred in the Septette section where their group achieved first place.

(Royal South Street Society, 1921a, 1921b)

1910: Wanganui Garrison Band – South Street Eisteddfod, Ballarat:

Two years after the Kaikorai band visited South Street, another one of New Zealand’s top bands, the famous Wanganui Garrison Band made the trip.  Conducted by Mr. James Chrichton for 21 years and succeeded by Mr. Alfred Wade in 1908, the band had built up an enviable contesting record and in 1910 they made the trip to Australia to compete (Newcomb, 1980; Zealley & Ord Hume, 1926).

Needless to say, the Wanganui Garrison Band was very successful at South Street and won both the Quickstep and Test sections over the Collingwood Citizens’ Band and both Ballarat bands – Prout’s and City (“THE GRAND BAND CONTESTS,” 1910).  As well as this superb win in the band contest, Wanganui also had many soloists and ensemble enter various sections, and they were similarly successful with many of them gaining places.

(Royal South Street Society, 1910a, 1910b, 1910c, 1910d)

When Wanganui returned to Melbourne, they were given a rapturous welcome by the Lord Mayor and the Agent for New Zealand (pictured at the start of this post) (“THE WANGANUI BAND.,” 1910).  After leaving Melbourne they traveled to Albury where they were given another civic reception (“WANGANUI BAND,” 1910).  From Albury, they traveled to Sydney to take a ship back to Auckland where they were greeted with a huge celebration by proud New Zealanders (“VICTORY OF THE WANGANUI BAND,” 1910).

1920: 2ndSouth Canterbury (Timaru) Regimental Band – South Street Eisteddfod, Ballarat:

19131121_Invercargill_Timaru-Regimental
Band of 2nd, South Canterbury, Regiment, Timaru (Source: Early New Zealand Photographers)

After the First World War ended and bands were gradually getting back to normal activities, the South Street Eisteddfod resumed and the 2nd South Canterbury Regimental Band, also known as the Timaru Regimental Band, ventured to Australia to compete in the 1920 contests.  Despite them being a national champion band in New Zealand, at least before the war, their results in Ballarat were not that spectacular (Newcomb, 1980).  That being said, the A Grade section did include Malvern Tramways Band, Ipswich Vice-Regal Band, South Sydney and the City of Ballarat – Timaru came up against some of the best in Australia at the time.  Timaru Regimental did have some success in the Trombone Trio and placings in other solo sections so their experience of South Street was somewhat worthwhile (“SOUTH STREET BAND CONTESTS.,” 1920).

(Royal South Street Society, 1920a, 1920b, 1920c)

1934: Woolston Band – South Street “Centenary” Brass Band Contest, Ballarat:

In 1934 in the midst of a depression, the Woolston Band from Christchurch managed to find enough funds to make the trip to Ballarat with the aim of competing in the 1934 South Street “Centenary” Brass Band Contests – the name given as it was Victoria’s Centenary year since it became a separate colony.  This was an auspicious event as it was attended by the Duke of Gloucester and the Band of His Majesty’s Grenadier Guards.

By all accounts they acquitted themselves very well and up against some of Australia’s best bands, they achieved second place.  They did have some setbacks though.  Newcomb (1980) writes of Woolston’s effort:

The Woolston Band may well have won the contest had it not drawn the dreaded No. 1 position in the second test piece.  Bad weather resulted in a last-minute decision to stage the event indoors, and when the band started its performance it became evident that the standard seating formation did not conform with the acoustics of the hall.

After the contest, the adjudicator, Mr. Stephen York, told Mr. Estell the Woolston Band had not scored well because it was not properly balanced.  Moreover, to add to the band’s misfortune, five members were suffering from influenza. (p. 47).

The standard of competition was very high and this was noted by the press that attended the event (“BRILLIANT PLAYING,” 1934).  The winning band was the famed Melbourne Fire Brigade Band.

(Royal South Street Society, 1934)

19341101-19341103_South-Street-Centenary-Contest_p3-p4
Programme, South Street “Centenary” : Brass Band Contest : A, B, C and D Grades, pg. 3-4. (Souce: Victorian Collections: Victorian Bands’ League Archives)

1947: Wellington Waterside Workers Silver Band / Auckland Junior Waterside Workers Band – Australian Band Championships, Newcastle:

After the cessation of the Second World War, band competitions resumed in New Zealand and Australia and in 1947 the Australian Band Championships were held in Newcastle, N.S.W.  Two New Zealand Bands made the trip to Newcastle that year with the Wellington band competing in A grade and the Auckland band competing in B grade.  On this occasion, both bands did not receive a civic welcome to Newcastle but instead were awarded a function put on by the Newcastle Waterside Workers’ Social Committee (“Waterside Bands To Be Welcomed,” 1947).

Out of these two bands, the Wellington Waterside Band was the only one to gain a placing by achieving 3rd place however their soloists won most sections (Newcomb, 1980).  The Auckland Junior band did not gain any placing and the A Grade championship was won by the Melbourne Fire Brigade Band (“FIREMEN SCORE IN BAND CONTEST,” 1947).  Both Waterside bands performed at other events during their stay which helped contribute money to various waterside workers’ benefit funds (“New Zealand Bands Guest Artists,” 1947).

1949: St. Kilda Municipal Band – South Street Eisteddfod, Ballarat:

In 1949 the St. Kilda Municipal Band from Dunedin, elated by their success at the Auckland NZ Band Championships this same year, decided to come to Ballarat and compete for the Australian championship as well (Newcomb, 1980).  Make the trip they did, and doing things differently to other New Zealand bands that had previously traveled to Australia, instead of taking a ship, they flew! (“NZ BAND WILL FLY HERE,” 1949).

To have a New Zealand band of this caliber at South Street was a major drawcard and they convincingly won or came 2nd in every section that they participated in (“NZ band has a big day at Ballarat,” 1949).  The section included bands from Ballarat and the famous Brisbane Excelsior Band.

(Royal South Street Society, 1949a, 1949b)

Conclusion:

In concluding part one of this series of posts, one must admire the drive and determination of the New Zealand bands.  Success was never a guarantee; however, it was shown that the best New Zealand bands were certainly a match for the crack Australian bands (and vice versa).  Having bands visit from New Zealand was also a major drawcard to competitions for the visiting public.

In part two of this series, we can see how the Australian bands fared in New Zealand.

Part Two – Australian Bands in New Zealand ->

References:

THE BAND CONTEST. (1898, 12 April). Bendigo Independent (Vic. : 1891 – 1918), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article184290848

BAND CONTEST. (1899, 11 November). Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 – 1909), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228744480

Bathurst Band Contest : Complaints from New Zealand. (1899, 17 November). Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (NSW : 1851 – 1904), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63910068

BRILLIANT PLAYING : Ballarat Band Contest. (1934, 05 November). Evening Post (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19341105.2.61

FIREMEN SCORE IN BAND CONTEST. (1947, 22 September). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134239668

THE GRAND BAND CONTESTS : Close of South-St Competitions. (1910, 24 October). Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 – 1924), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article216382480

Kaikorai Band. (1908, 14 January). Advertisement. Colonist (N.Z.), p. 3. Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/TC19080114.2.24.1

Kaikorai Band at Ballarat. (1908, 11 November). Otago Witness (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/OW19081111.2.151

McKesch, H. J. (1913). Band of 2nd South Canterbury Regiment, Timaru. Early New Zealand Photographers and their successors [Digital Image]. Retrieved from http://canterburyphotography.blogspot.com/2014/03/mckesch-henry-john.html Early New Zealand Photographers and their successors.

N. Z. Govt, & Auckland Weekly News. (1910). THE WANGANUI GARRISON BAND IN MELBOURNE: WELCOMED BY A HUGE CROWD AT THE NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT AGENCY. Auckland Council – Te Kaunhera o Tâmaki Makaurau : Auckland Libraries – Ngā Pātaka Kōrero o Tâmaki Makaurau : Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections [Digital Image AWNS-19101110-4-5]. Retrieved from http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?BU=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aucklandcity.govt.nz%2Fdbtw-wpd%2FHeritageImages%2Findex.htm&AC=QBE_QUERY&TN=heritageimages&QF0=ID&NP=2&MR=5&RF=HIORecordSearch&QI0=%3D%22AWNS-19101110-4-5%22: Auckland Weekly News.

New Zealand Bands Guest Artists. (1947, 19 September). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134230123

Newcomb, S. P. (1980). Challenging brass : 100 years of brass band contests in New Zealand, 1880-1980. Takapuna, N.Z.: Powerbrass Music for the Brass Band Association of New Zealand.

NZ band has a big day at Ballarat. (1949, 31 October). Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article22788890

NZ BAND WILL FLY HERE. (1949, 27 August). Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article243675387

Royal South Street Society. (1908a). 1908-10-21 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1908-10-21-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1908b). 1908-10-24 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1908-10-24-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1910a). 1910-10-17 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1910-10-17-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1910b). 1910-10-18 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1910-10-18-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1910c). 1910-10-19 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1910-10-19-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1910d). 1910-10-20 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1910-10-20-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1920a). 1920-10-18 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1920-10-18-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1920b). 1920-10-20 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1920-10-20-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1920c). 1920-10-23 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1920-10-23-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1921a). 1921-10-19 Brass Solo Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1921-10-19-brass-solo-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1921b). 1921-10-22 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1921-10-22-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1934). 1934-11-01 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1934-11-01-brass-band-contests

Royal South Street Society. (1934). Souvenir Programme : Brass Band Contest : A, B, C and D Grades. Victorian Collections: Victorian Bands’ League. Retrieved from https://victoriancollections.net.au/items/5d425e0c21ea6b1a84382033

Royal South Street Society. (1949a). 1949-10-28 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1949-10-28-victorian-brass-band-championship

Royal South Street Society. (1949b). 1949-10-29 Brass Band Contests. Royal South Street Society. Retrieved from https://results.royalsouthstreet.com.au/results/1949-10-29-victorian-brass-band-championship

SOUTH STREET BAND CONTESTS. (1920, 25 October). Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4575694

UNSHAVEN BANDSMEN. (1899, 10 November). Hawke’s Bay Herald (N.Z.). Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/HBH18991110.2.22.1

VICTORIA : Intercolonial Band Contest. (1897, 22 April). Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 – 1922), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article209088576

VICTORY OF THE WANGANUI BAND : Magnificent Performance : Only Three off Possible in “Own Choice”. (1910, 03 November). New Zealand Times. Retrieved from https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NZTIM19101103.2.14

WANGANUI BAND : A Civic Reception. (1910, 29 October). Border Morning Mail and Riverina Times (Albury, NSW : 1903 – 1920), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111390543

THE WANGANUI BAND : Mayoral Reception in Melbourne. (1910, 27 October). Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 – 1924), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article216382888

Waterside Bands To Be Welcomed. (1947, 11 September). Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 – 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article157898304

The Wellington Garrison Band. (1899, 07 November). National Advocate (Bathurst, NSW : 1889 – 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156812212

Zealley, A. E., & Ord Hume, J. (1926). Famous Bands of the British Empire : Brief Historical Records of the recognized leading Military Bands and Brass Bands in the Empire. London: J. P. Hull.

The A.B.C. Military Band: an ensemble of the times

S6.2_20180609_19310000_ABC-Military-Band_Postcard
Postcard of the A.B.C Military Band. Possibly in 1930 or 1931 (Source: Victorian Collections : Victorian Bands’ League Archives)

Introduction:

To view the early history of bands in this country would be to see a history that is based around brass bands.  This was no accident as much of the brass band culture was imported into the Antipodes by early settlers from the United Kingdom (Bythell, 2000).  However, in amongst this brass band culture, there were a few oddities in the form of military bands – bands that included woodwinds.  They were a rarity, but they certainly existed.  One of the most famous groups was the A.B.C. Military Band which was only in operation from 1930 – 1951.  This ensemble built an enviable reputation for their playing, sound, and demeanor.

Military bands were not new ensembles in Australia, certainly not in name.  But the A.B.C. Military Band accomplished much more than previous ensembles, no doubt partly due to the broadcasting resources of the A.B.C.’s radio network.  Also, it provided many musicians with a unique employment opportunity, guidance by the best wind band conductors that could be found, and a large following through Australia.

This post will delve into the short history of the band with material mainly found through the Trove archive and will highlight some of the more interesting stories of this ensemble.  Depending on which history is read, most will say the band started in 1933 however this isn’t the case as it essentially started in 1930.  There are only limited photos of the band that seem to exist which are displayed with this post.

Unfortunately, the band is no longer part of the musical landscape, so we have only articles and photos that preserve the memory.  And as will be seen, in the end, the ensemble was closed due to reasons that are only too familiar today.

1930-1933: Starting a band:

To start this small history, we need to see what the A.B.C. was doing regarding the running and broadcasting of its own ensembles.  From using the Trove archive, we can find that in-house ensembles were barely getting started if they existed at all.  Interestingly there was one that stood out.  In 1929 the Table Talk newspaper published an article on the famous conductor Percy Code, who was an eminent bandsman and composer.  Percy, in amongst his other musical activities, was the conductor of the 3LO Orchestra which was labeled as being the “National Broadcasting Orchestra” – the A.B.C., at the insistence of the Government, had taken over several radio services and when taking over 3LO had gained an orchestra as well! (Bradish, 1929).  Unfortunately, this article is the only mention of such an orchestra although 3LO broadcast many forms of music during this time, including brass bands (“3LO.,” 1929).

19301029_Argus_ABC-Mil-Band-Shugg
Argus, 29/10/1930, p. 15

In 1930, articles first start appearing mentioning a newly-formed A.B.C Military Band.  Although, just about all of the articles only provided details on when the band could be heard on the radio (“MILITARY BAND AT 3LO.,” 1930).  What we do know is that the great Harry Shugg, the famous conductor of the Malvern Tramways Band, was the first conductor of the band in 1930, a position he apparently held until 1933 (“CONDUCTOR AT 18.,” 1931).  The Postcard at the start of this post shows him in front of the band in what looks like a recording studio.

 

19340000_ABC-Mil-Band-Perth
ABC Military Band on Tour, Possibly in 1934 (Source: Western Australia Television History)

1933 – 1934: Guest Conductor, Capt. Adkins:

This time period was perhaps the most interesting for the A.B.C. Military Band with superb guest conductors, a new focus on musicality and National tours (Ken, 2012).  In November 1933 the A.B.C. assembled 40 musicians from around Australia to form a new Military Band, which, according to the article, was only supposed to be engaged for 10 weeks (“A.B.C. MILITARY BAND.,” 1933).  They were initially conducted by their deputy conductor, Mr. R. McAnally (another prominent bandsman), until the guest conductor Capt. H. E. Adkins, the then Director of the Royal Military School of Music, Kneller Hall, commenced his position (“A.B.C. MILITARY BAND.,” 1933).

19340303_WeeklyTimes_Adkins
Weekly Times, 03/03/1934, p. 8

Capt. Adkins arrived in Australia in December 1933 and immediately started conducting the band.  He apparently had trepidations over what he was about to do but was quickly won over after his first rehearsal with the ensemble (“A.B.C. BAND,” 1933).  When speaking at a club in Sydney about his initial experiences with the band, he said that while on his way out from England, “I had a feeling of anxiety, but it disappeared after our first practice yesterday.  I was very agreeably surprised, and in a few months’ time the band will be the equal of any in the world” (“A.B.C. BAND,” 1933).  The band commenced touring around Australia and the choice of Capt. Adkins as Guest Conductor won praise in many places.  The Evening News from Rockhampton was one newspaper that published an enthusiastic article by stating at one point that Capt. Adkins , “…is recognized as the world’s greatest authority on woodwind instruments” (“A.B.C. National Military Band.,” 1934).  Likewise, a reporter with the pseudonym of “G.K.M.” writing for the Weekly Times newspaper congratulated the A.B.C. and noted that Capt. Adkins “…is setting a new standard for Australian bandsmen.” (G.K.M., 1934).  A month later the Weekly Times published a picture of Capt. Adkins at his farewell from Australia (“The Adkins Way,” 1934).

A later article from 1941, published in the Portland Guardian after Capt. Adkins had left the band (and Australia), followed through on some of memories and anecdotes of his tenure in front of the band.  We see a bandsman who was brought out to bring an ensemble up to a very fine standard of playing – and that’s exactly what he did!

Cleve Martin, now deputy-conductor, and E Flat clarinetist under Adkins, is one who remembers the swaggering, lovable, downright English band-leader.

“Take this so-and-so stand away, I never use the thing”

That first remark from Captain Adkins was typical of his downright ‘take no nonsense’ style,” says Cleve Martin. It was a blitz beginning with the Empire’s No. 1 bandsman, but the players soon became used to his roars and worked hard to give him the precision that he sought.

“The musical monologue is my method of conducting,” Adkins explained to the boys.  “I’ll talk to you all the time during rehearsal and in public performances.”

(“STARS OF THE RADIO,” 1941)

There was much more that Adkins did for the band and much more on how he acted in front of band members and audience. Firm, but fair would probably be an accurate way to describe his mannerisms, without being too over the top:

He could become personal, although never malicious.  To a drummer : “I love every hair on your bald head, but when I say roll on the drums – roll!!!”

(“STARS OF THE RADIO,” 1941)

He was truly loyal to this band, so much so that he could not say goodbye to them in person when it was time to go.

His comradeship with the National Military Band was staunch.  Beneath the brusque sergeant-major manner was a soft nature.  He demanded the best possible playing, but also worked himself, and was deeply appreciative of the band’s response.  He expressed his attitude in a farewell wire to the band : “Sorry I failed to see you off.  At the last moment I realised I could not face it.”  At the hotel that night, someone noticed that he was on the verge of tears.

(“STARS OF THE RADIO,” 1941)

Having finished his guest appointment, Capt. Adkins returned home to England and Stephen Yorke resumed his direction of the band.

 

19410000_Hood_ABC-Mil-Band
ABC Military Band playing with ABC commentator on a vessel. (Source: flickr : Australian National Maritime Museum)

1934 – 1951: Concerts, the War and the final years:

As with any organization of its size, the A.B.C. was not immune to industrial trouble and in the middle part of 1934, there was a court case over the rate of pay for the Military Band musicians (“IN THE LAW COURTS,” 1934).  Stephen Yorke had taken over as conductor by this time and was asked to give evidence in court.  The crux of the issue was over which players in the band deserved extra remuneration as the court had decided that the band was like an orchestra with actual principal players.  Mr. Yorke apparently stated that any player in the band could be considered a principal player as they all played some kind of solo part – but he didn’t have knowledge of the industrial award that distinguished between “leaders” and “principals” (“IN THE LAW COURTS,” 1934).  Whereas the Musicians’ Union countered that the principal players should be the first player of any class of instrument, and any single players of an instrument (“IN THE LAW COURTS,” 1934).  Capt. Adkins in his treatise had said that “the oboe was essentially a solo and color instrument.  Therefore an oboe player must be called upon at times to perform work comparable to that of a principal.” (“IN THE LAW COURTS,” 1934).  The final decision was that the commission followed the argument put forward by the Musicians’ Union where the principal players were the first players of a group of instruments and any player of single instruments were considered to be the principals (“IN THE LAW COURTS,” 1934).

In the year of 1936, we see the band, under the baton of Stephen Yorke, continue their series of broadcasts, concerts and other engagements around Australia.  Under Mr. Yorke, the reviews indicate that the quality and standard have not diminished, and they are receiving rave reviews (“A.B.C. Military Band.,” 1936).  Unfortunately, the A.B.C. raised the ire of some listeners who wanted more brass band music to be played, and berated the A.B.C. for putting on the wrong kind of music –they expressed support for regular performances of the military band as well (“A.B.C. Neglects the Bands.,” 1938).
In 1939 the Second World War started, and the Military Band was there to lift the spirits of Australians over the radio with patriotic music.  As can be seen in the article here published by the Shepparton Advertiser, it enthusiastically endorses the music played by the band on the radio for lifting spirits of all Australians (“NATIONAL MILITARY BAND SESSIONS,” 1941).

19410127_SheppartonAdv_ABC-Mil-Band-Sessions
Shepparton Advertiser, 27/01/1941, p. 4

As with most other organizations war hit home with the sad passing of an ex-member of the band at Tobruk.  The Smith’s Weekly newspaper from October 1941 published an obituary for Clarinetist John Smith, and highlighted his musical excellence:

A brilliant young musician, he took two scholarships at the Sydney Conservatorium for clarinet playing, and was considered one of the finest artists on that instrument in Australia.

Graduating from the Conservatorium, he went straight into the A.B.C. Military Band.  At the time of his enlistment he was a member of a leading Sydney theatre orchestra.

About 12 months ago he went overseas with a battalion of Pioneers, and served throughout the Middle East.

He wrote to a friend in the A.B.C. Military Band:

“My work in field stretcher-bearing which is the fate of all good bandsmen. It has proved quite interesting, though sometimes hard to take.  It has given me the opportunity of witnessing some examples of sheer braver and doggedness that other chaps probably never see.”

(“Ex-A.B.C. Musician Killed At Tobruk,” 1941)

Sadly, it was through doing this job that Smith lost his life.

After the conclusion of hostilities, we see the band resume its normal activities of performances and broadcasts which continued through the rest of the 1940’s (“A.B.C. BAND CONCERT,” 1946; “A.B.C. BAND RECITAL,” 1948).  Stephen Yorke was still the conductor of the band.

As another measure of the quality of musicians that were associated with the band, one of them was Tuba player Cliff Goodchild.  Cliff’s first real musical position was with the A.B.C. Military Band and after the band ended he gained a position with the Sydney Symphony, a position he held for 36 years (Veitch, 2008).  He was also a consummate bandsman and over his lifetime held positions as “Secretary of the National Band Council of Australia, President of the Band Association of NSW, founder and co-organiser of the NSW School Bands Festival and formed a number of bands, including the Waverly Bondi Beach Brass Band and the Sydney Brass” (Veitch, 2008).

In 1951, we see that funding cuts brought about by the Australian Federal Government of the time leave the A.B.C. no choice but to close the band (“A.B.C. Band’s Farewell,” 1951).  This was a bitter end to a no doubt special period in Australian ensembles where we had a band that was excellent in its playing and revered throughout Australia. At the final concert in Sydney, conductor Stephen Yorke thanked the band and the audiences for their appreciation of the ensemble (“A.B.C. Band’s Farewell,” 1951).

19511015_TheAge_ABC-Mil-Band-Farewell
The Age, 15/10/1951, p. 3

Conclusion:

By all accounts this was a truly remarkable band; the finest musicians from all over Australia brought together under various conductors and being boosted to higher and higher levels.  A band that all Australians supported and were proud of. We see the high praise given to the conductors and musicians and with the broadcasting resources of the A.B.C., the sound of the band is heard Australia-wide.  From reading the articles of the time, we just have to wonder why they would cut such a fine ensemble?  But as we know, governments change and priorities change.  Who knows what the band could have become had the Federal government of the day not enforced funding cuts?

References:

3LO : St. Augustine’s Band. (1929, 05 October). Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 – 1931), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article29626577

6WF20: A.B.C. Military Band [Online photograph]. (1934?). Western Australian Television History (WA TV History). Retrieved from http://watvhistory.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/6WF20.jpg

0016: A.B.C. Military Band – Conductor: Harry Shugg [Online postcard]. (1930?, 02 July, 2018). Victorian Collections : Victorian Bands’ League. Retrieved from https://victoriancollections.net.au/items/5b39988221ea6d0008c461a6

The Adkins Way. (1934, 03 March). Weekly Times (Melbourne, Vic. : 1869 – 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223202315

A.B.C. BAND : Visiting Conductor’s Praise. (1933, 16 December). Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11721475

A.B.C. BAND CONCERT. (1946, 02 June). Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 – 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229456055

A.B.C. BAND RECITAL. (1948, 30 May). Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 – 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169373651

A.B.C. Band’s Farewell. (1951, 15 October). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article205334832

A.B.C. Military Band. (1936, 17 August). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article204916718

A.B.C. MILITARY BAND : Forty Players Selected. (1933, 14 November). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203351163

A.B.C. National Military Band. (1934, 16 January 1934). Evening News (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1924 – 1941), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article201261855

A.B.C. Neglects the Bands. (1938, 02 May). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206948874

Bradish, C. R. (1929, 05 September). Prominent Personalities : PERCY CODE | CONDUCTOR OF NATIONAL BROADCASTING ORCHESTRA. Table Talk (Melbourne, Vic. : 1885 – 1939), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article146712994

Bythell, D. (2000). The Brass Band in the Antipodes : The Transplantation of British Popular Culture. In T. Herbert (Ed.), The British brass band : a musical and social history (pp. 217-244). Oxford: Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press.

CONDUCTOR AT 18 : Harry Shugg’s Career. : PROMINENT BANDSMAN. (1931, 01 January). Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 – 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article67694778

Ex-A.B.C. Musician Killed At Tobruk. (1941, 11 October). Smith’s Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 – 1950), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article234602068

G.K.M. (1934, 17 February). New Standard in Band Music. Weekly Times (Melbourne, Vic. : 1869 – 1954), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223199691

Hood, S. J. (n.d., 02 August, 2006). 00034964: ABC Military Band playing with ABC commentator on a vessel, 1933-1951 [Online photograph]. flickr : Australian National Maritime Museum. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/anmm_thecommons/8527077760

IN THE LAW COURTS : A.B.C. Military Band : Extra Pay for Principals. : Court Decides Who They Are. (1934, 11 July). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article205536311

Ken. (2012, 20 August). The 6WF Story – Part 2 of 3 : The Australian Broadcasting Commission. Blog post Retrieved from http://watvhistory.com/2012/08/the-6wf-story-part-2-of-3/

MILITARY BAND AT 3LO. (1930, 29 October). Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), p. 15. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4214065

NATIONAL MILITARY BAND SESSIONS. (1941, 27 January). Shepparton Advertiser (Vic. : 1914 – 1953), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article175188421

STARS OF THE RADIO : Founder of the National Military Band : Picturesque Major Adkins. (1941, 27 November). Portland Guardian (Vic. : 1876 – 1953), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64402540

Veitch, H. (2008, 02 August). Bold as brass in pushing the bands : Cliff Goodchild, 1926-2008. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/news/obituaries/bold-as-brass-in-pushing-the-bands/2008/08/01/1217097525143.html

 

Instruments, sheet music and uniforms: how the bands of old obtained the essentials

Introduction:

If we were to undertake an examination of all the aspects that make community bands what they are, and look back over a century, we would probably find that there is much that is similar.  In fact, there is not much that has changed at all, except that bands are increasingly adapting to changes in technology when it comes to obtaining the necessities.  Our methods of finding sheet music, in particular, have focused on online searches – we can listen to the music and make discerning choices and music can be purchased, downloaded and printed within hours.  Regarding instruments, some bands still maintain stocks although many musicians own their own.  Where technology has not really intruded is around uniforms, except for the manufacturing. This is the concern of band committees who have to ensure they have the necessary items for a band while maintaining a workable budget.

Change is inevitable.  One wonders what the bands of old would have made of all the choice we have now?

This post will advertisements from various firms advertising their products.  They were published in a 1919 edition of the Australian Band News and this style of advertisement was quite common.  Again, this kind of advertising would be very familiar to the modern band’s person. Although we don’t have this kind of banding news is not so common in this day and age, we do have advertising in programs for the National Band Championships for example.

The purpose of this post will be to look back in history and view this from a different light where technology was very different, retailers were somewhat aggressive in the way they did things and a number of items were supplied in bulk.  There will be issues of competition between local manufacturers and big retailers who supplied imports.  We shall see how bands enlisted a whole town to fund them to buy new uniforms as these were a measure of the band and town pride.  Regarding sheet music, the bands couldn’t buy just one piece as an amount of music was published in albums.  Bands were much more numerous back then and retailers had to keep up with demand.

There is no definitive list of just how many bands were started.  However, through running searches in the Trove archive one can see that there was a number of bands.  It is not an accident that there were initially so many; Australia (and New Zealand) were mainly settled by immigrants from the United Kingdom these immigrants brought the brass band culture with them (Bythell, 2000).  Indeed, as Bythell (2000) writes,

Whether large of small, these new urban communities in the antipodes quickly replicated both the physical forms and social institutions familiar in Victorian and Edwardian Britain.  It is not surprising that so quintessentially Victorian an institution as the brass band should have been prominent among them. (p. 218)

For some, this might be a trip down memory lane.  For others, seeing the old advertisements might bring a sense of wonder.  Whatever you might think, the necessities were as important back then as they are now.

19190626_ABN_Besson
Advertisement for Besson Instruments from the Australian Band News, 1919

Instruments to play:

19050701_QueenslandTimes_Boosey-Palings
Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, 01/07/1905, pg. 11

A band is not a band without instruments and in the early 1900s, many new bands were busy equipping themselves with whole sets of instruments. With the bands came the industry to support them with many music retailers as they realized that the bands were business opportunities (Evans, 2013).  As can be seen below in this 1896 advertisement found in the Sydney Morning Herald, there are a number of retailers listed, including a manufacturer who was based in Australia, John York Jnr. (“Advertising,” 1896).  Some music retailers enlisted the services of prominent musicians to endorse instruments – and listing the prizes that were won using particular instruments was a common selling point (Besson, 1919b; Boosey and Co.s, 1919; Myers, 2000).  The music retailers worked to build relationships with bands and representatives traveled all over Australia to sell their wares.  John York Jnr was one of them and his efforts did not go unnoticed. In 1902 the newly-formed Crokl Brass Band accepted 13 York instruments out of the 15 he sent up to them, although many members of the new band had their own instruments (“Crokl Brass Band.,” 1902).  Likewise, the Palings firm, who operated out of Sydney, were famous for supplying whole sets of instruments and the products they sold were enthusiastically written up in various newspapers (“BAND INSTRUMENTS.,” 1889; “BOOSEY’S BAND INSTRUMENTS.,” 1905; “PIANOS & MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS,” 1904).  Although, as is seen here, the Queensland Times article from 1905 was more enthused about the presentation of the catalog!

18961107_SMH_York-Band-Contest
Sydney Morning Herald, 07/11/1896, pg. 2

Palings and Allan’s were the agents for many of the brands of brass instruments that were sold in Australia in the early 1900s and beyond. Instruments from the famous British firms of  “Boosey, Hawkes, Besson, and Higham” were imported as their factories were “capable of mass production” (Myers, 2000, p. 176).  As such, they could be sold at reasonable prices in Australia which matched those from the British markets (Herbert, 2000).  Through some research by Evans (2013) into the history of John York Jnr, we can see that Boosey Cornets sold by Palings in 1904 were “approximately £8” each (p. 74).  Such was the prices of instruments in these times.  Unfortunately, the importation of cheap British made instruments put John York Jnr out of business.  Despite York producing instruments of high quality – he was trained at the Higham factory in Manchester – he couldn’t compete with the bigger music retailers (Evans, 2013).  Bands made choices according to their requirements and Boosey’s and Besson’s were generally the instruments of choice.

It was not just the local town bands that were benefiting from the business of Palings.  In 1914 the 13th Battalion Band, which was still in Sydney at the time, became the beneficiary of a whole set of instruments acquired from Palings by a Miss Margaret Harris and then sent to the Army camp at Rosehill (“BAND INSTRUMENTS.,” 1914).  Such donations were not uncommon, and many Battalion bands benefited from individuals donating instruments (“15th BATTALION BAND FUND.,” 1914).

Coming into the 1930’s we see that supplying bands with instruments is still a good business for some retailers, in particular, the Palings firm who now had multiple outlets up and down the Eastern coastline.  A display of instruments by the Palings Brisbane shop at the Maryborough Band Contest in 1932 was enthusiastically written up in a Maryborough Chronical article (“BAND INSTRUMENTS.,” 1932).  Regarding the sales of instruments, bands basically went with the retailer that offered the best prices.  In 1932 the Lismore Brass Band was trying to acquire some second-hand instruments for loan through the Defence Force, Allan’s and Palings (“CITIZENS’ BAND,” 1932).  From the article, it seems the terms offered by Allans were rejected and the offer from Palings was examined further.  The Woodburn Brass Band accepted an offer from Palings in 1932 for a whole new set of instruments as did the Narrabri Band in 1934 (“NEW INSTRUMENTS,” 1932; “NEW INSTRUMENTS,” 1934).  However, things did not always go to plan as the Taree Citizens’ Band found out in 1936 when being unable to afford repayments to Palings, found that their instruments were due to be repossessed (“BAND INSTRUMENTS,” 1936).  Such is business!

Palings and Allan’s were obviously very helpful to the early brass bands with their sponsorship of competitions and the advertisements swayed some bands to seek them out.  No matter how we might view their business tactics, one cannot discount the fact that in the early days, the instruments were supplied when the bands needed them.

19190626_ABN_Allans-Boosey
Advertisement for Boosey Cornets from the Australian Band News, 1919

Music to read:

19190626_ABN_Allans
Advertisement for Allan’s Music Publishers from the Australian Band News, 1919

In some respects, the supply of band music was very much linked to that of instruments
as the bigger retailers also supplied sheet music to bands. This was also the time of some very famous brass band composers such as Thomas Edward Bulch who not only conducted bands but wrote for them as well (Friends of the Wizard and Typhoon, 2016b; Pattie, 2010).  Not much is written about the publishing of band music in newspapers, but there were numerous advertisements for sheet music in publications such as The Australian Band News.  To the right, and below these paragraphs are some advertisements from 1919 for sheet music, albums of band music and instruments tutors.

In addition to bands obtaining music from albums (or march cards), there were some people within bands who wrote and/or arranged their own music.  Certainly, Thomas Bulch was one of them, and his advertisement is below.  Bulch conducted his own band in Ballarat for a number of years – the “Bulch’s Model Brass Band” (Pattie, 2010, pp. 5-12) which later became the Ballarat City Band.  He also wrote an amount of music, sometimes under his own name, but also using pseudonyms (Friends of the Wizard and Typhoon, 2016b).  Bulch worked for himself but at times also worked for Allan’s and Palings as an editor and contributor of music.  A list of his compositions compiled by the excellent Friends of the Wizard and Typhoon website can be found here (Friends of the Wizard and Typhoon, 2016a).  In a similar way, Robert McAnally, the second conductor of the Malvern and Prahran Tramways Employees Band, also penned up numerous arrangements of existing orchestral works which the current iteration of the band still holds in its library (Stonnington City Brass, 2011).

It is fortunate that many bands are able to play this older music today as much of it has survived in band libraries.  And that there are old catalogs to look at and admire.  The composers and publishers have left the current bands a legacy of music to keep hold of and hopefully play again.

19190626_ABN_Sykes-Besson
Advertisement for the Besson Cornet Tutor from the Australian Band News, 1919.
19190626_ABN_Bulch
Advertisement for Bulch’s Brass Band Journal from the Australian Band News, 1919

Uniforms to wear:

There is no doubt that the old bands wore their uniforms with pride and much has been written about these bands obtaining new uniforms.  From the metropolitan bands to tiny country bands, in the early decades of the 1900s, supplying a band with a uniform drew the interest of whole towns and local councils.  A look through photos on The Internet Bandsman website shows a huge variety of uniforms and their changes over the years (The Internet Bandsman, n.d.).  Being a properly dressed band is one tradition that modern bands adhere to.

To start a bit earlier than 1900 will reveal that the wearing of uniforms had some effect on the morale of a band.  In 1885, the band of the ‘Norriston Asylum’ paraded in their new uniforms for the first time and the local newspaper, the Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser reported on the event:

A brass band composed on insane inmates of the Norriston Asylum paraded about the grounds, wearing uniforms for the first time.  They were very proud of their regalia, and when they passed in review of trustees and Physician-in-law Chase, the lunatic who played the big brass horn blew harder and the fat cymbal player, who imagines he owns the State of Pennsylvania, clapped the cymbals with all his might, while the man who beat the bass drum thumped away as if he were trying to knock the drum head in.

The uniforms are similar to those worn by the United States troops.  When the band stopped playing for want of breath, the lunatics all looked at their uniforms and smiled proudly.

(“A Crazy Brass Band.,” 1885)

There was a bit more to this article but needless to say that the asylum was quite proud of its brass band and the holistic effect it had on inmates.

19220830_TambellupTimes_Katanning-Uniforms
Tambellup Times, 22/08/1922, pg. 2

There is a common thread of funding running through articles on bands and uniforms.  In 1905 a bizarre was to be held in the Corowa School of Arts with the aim of funding new uniforms for the Corowa Band (“BRASS BAND UNIFORM.,” 1905).  Over in Western Australia, the Katanning Brass Band accepted tenders for their uniforms in 1922 and in 1927 the nearby Gnowangerup District Brass Band decided to look at obtaining uniforms (“Gnowangerup District Brass Band.,” 1927; “Katanning Brass Band,” 1922).  The Carnegie Junior Brass Band in Melbourne also decided to raise funds for uniforms by holding a bazaar while the Fitzroy City Council, in a show of support for their local band, calls for tenders for new uniforms (“Carnegie Junior Brass Band.,” 1936; “New Uniforms for Band.,” 1937).  Meanwhile, the Salvation Army, as can be seen by the advertisement below, offers its tailoring services to create uniforms for any band that wanted them.

Uniforms were a whole different kind of necessity yet brought about great pride to the bands and their towns.  It’s no wonder that whole communities supported their bands with these important items.

19190626_ABN_Salvo-Band-Uniforms
Article for the Salvation Army Tailoring Department from the Australian Band News, 1919.

Conclusion:

There’s probably much more to be explored regarding instruments, sheet music and uniforms as researching each item brings up more stories. They are part of a much larger story of banding in this country, uniquely so.  The fact that the purchase of instruments and production of uniforms made the local papers tells us that the bands (and local communities) saw these as important and newsworthy.  It is important that we recognize the lengths that bands went to in order to obtain what they needed.

19190626_ABN_Lyons
Advertisement for Lyons Instrument Repairs from the Australian Band News, 1919

References:

15th BATTALION BAND FUND. (1914, 24 October). Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article177942144

“Allans”. (1919, 26 June). New Band Successes, [Advertisement]. Australian Band News, 12(10), p. 15.

Advertising. (1896, 07 November). Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14074229

BAND INSTRUMENTS. (1889, 11 April). Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13729011

BAND INSTRUMENTS. (1914, 14 October). Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15566270

BAND INSTRUMENTS: Comprehensive Display: Palings to the Front. (1932, 23 March). Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1860 – 1947), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article149077126

BAND INSTRUMENTS: Over £300 Owing: Palings to be Asked to Reposssess. (1936, 18 July). Northern Champion (Taree, NSW : 1913 – 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162151455

Besson. (1919a, 26 June). The Besson Cornet Tutor, [Advertisement]. Australian Band News, 12(10), p. 16.

Besson. (1919b, 26 June). Pre-eminent for Over Fifty Years, [Advertisement]. Australian Band News, 12(10), p. 4.

Boosey and Co.s. (1919, 26 June). A Famous Soloist, [Advertisement]. Australian Band News, 12(10), p. 18.

BOOSEY’S BAND INSTRUMENTS. (1905, 01 July). Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser (Qld. : 1861 – 1908), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article123898124

BRASS BAND UNIFORM. (1905, 17 November 1905). Corowa Free Press (NSW : 1875 – 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article237957970

Bulch & Co. (1919, 26 June). Bulch’s Brass Band Journal, [Advertisement]. Australian Band News, 12(10), p. 9.

Bythell, D. (2000). The Brass Band in the Antipodes : The Transplantation of British Popular Culture. In T. Herbert (Ed.), The British brass band : a musical and social history (pp. 217-244). Oxford: Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press.

Carnegie Junior Brass Band. (1936, 08 September). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), p. 15. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article205894546

CITIZENS’ BAND. (1932, 08 September). Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article94300280

A Crazy Brass Band. (1885, 15 September). Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser (NSW : 1863 – 1947), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article101640683

Crokl Brass Band. (1902, 23 July). Manning River Times and Advocate for the Northern Coast Districts of New South Wales (Taree, NSW : 1898 – 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article172469392

Evans, A. (2013). Playing on: John York and the Sydney Brass Musical Instrument Factor. Sydney Journal, 4(1), 66-85.

Friends of the Wizard and Typhoon. (2016a). A list of Thomas Edward Bulch compositions and arrangements (including some known pseudonyms). The Wizard and The Typhoon: A site rembering George Allan and Thomas Edward Bulch, the great Victorian brass composers of New Shildon. Retrieved from http://www.wizardandtyphoon.org/the-typhoon/a-list-of-thomas-edward-bulch-compositions-and-arrangements-including-some-known-pseudonyms/

Friends of the Wizard and Typhoon. (2016b). The Typhoon,. The Wizard and The Typhoon: A site rembering George Allan and Thomas Edward Bulch, the great Victorian brass composers of New Shildon. Retrieved from http://www.wizardandtyphoon.org/the-typhoon/

Gnowangerup District Brass Band. (1927, 05 February). Gnowangerup Star and Tambellup-Ongerup Gazette (WA : 1915 – 1944), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158910311

Herbert, T. (2000). Appendix 1 : Prices of Brass Band Instruments Extracted from Manufacturers’ Advertising Material. In T. Herbert (Ed.), The British brass band : a musical and social history (pp. 306-311). Oxford: Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press.

Katanning Brass Band: Uniforms Fund. (1922, 30 August). Tambellup Times (WA : 1912 – 1924), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article211145119

Lyons. (1919, 26 June). Brass Band Instrument Repairing, [Advertisement]. Australian Band News, 12(10), p. 5.

Myers, A. (2000). Instruments and Instrumentation of British Brass Bands. In T. Herbert (Ed.), The British brass band : a musical and social history (pp. 155-186). Oxford: Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press.

NEW INSTRUMENTS. (1932, 04 August). Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article94295194

NEW INSTRUMENTS: For Narrabri Band: Palings Make Offer. (1934, 26 July). North Western Courier (Narrabri, NSW : 1913 – 1955), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article133254083

New Uniforms for Band. (1937, 10 March). Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article205600050

Pattie, R. (2010). The history of the City of Ballarat Municipal Brass Band 1900-2010 : one hundred and ten years of music to the citizens of Ballarat (Rev. ed.). Ballarat, Vic.: City of Ballarat Municipal Brass Band.

PIANOS & MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: Messrs. W. H. Paling and Co., LTD. (1904, 14 December). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (NSW : 1876 – 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136387117

Stonnington City Brass. (2011). History of Stonnington City Brass. Stonnington City Brass. Retrieved from http://www.stonningtoncitybrass.org.au/SCBJoomla/index.php/history

The Internet Bandsman. (n.d.). Vintage Brass Band Pictures: Australia. IBEW. Retrieved from http://www.ibew.org.uk/vbbp-oz.htm

The Salvation Army. (1919, 26 June). The Salvation Army Tailoring Department, [Advertisement]. Australian Band News, 12(10), p. 1.

SaveSaveSaveSave